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Cornell University Library 
E 99.M69M56 



Dawn of the world: 



3 1924 028 663 874 




The original of tiiis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

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the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924028663874 



CJe Baton of tje l^orltr 



Recital of the Ancient Myths in 
the Roundhouse at Night 



Wfft ©anjti of tl)e i^orlb 

MYTHS AND WEIRD TALES TOLD BY THE 
MEWAN INDIANS OF CALIFORNIA 



COLLECTED AND EDITED BY 

C. HART MERRIAM 




CLEVELAND 

®te sartfjur 1^. Clarfe Companp 

1 910 



; 



COPYRIGHT, I9IO, BY 

C. HART MERRIAM 



r( 



Contents; 



Page 
Preface . . . . . . 15 

Introduction ..... 

Note ...... 



Part I: Ancient Myths 



17 
29 



How JVit'-tab-bah the Robin got his Red Breast . 33 

How Ah-hd'-le stole the Sun for the Valley People . 35 

How Ah-hd'-le stole the Morning ... 45 
How Tol'-le-loo stole the Fire for the Mountain 

People ...... 49 

Why the Lizard Man did not restore Dead People 

to Life ...... 55 

The Coyote and the Lizard .... 59 

How the People got Five Fingers; How they ob- 
tained Fire; and How they broke up into Tribes 61 
The Birth of Wek'-wek and the Creation of Man . 67 
Ke'-lok and his Han-na'-boo ... 75 
The Creation of Man .... 83 

How they got the Fire .... 89 

How Kah'-kool the Raven became a Great Hunter . 93 

How Kah'-kah-loo the Ravens became People . loi 
The Bear and the Fawns, as told by the Northern 

Mewuk ...... 103 

The Bear and the Fawns, as told by the Tuolumne 

Mewuk . . . . . . Ill 

How the Children of He-le'-jah became People . 115 

The Greed of His'-sik the Skunk . . . 117 

Nek'-na-ha'-tah the Rock Maiden . . . 123 

The Jealousy of Wek'-wek and the Death of Lo'-wut 127 

7 



Cijc Baton of tfje ^orlb 



The Defeat of O-la'-nah 

How Sah'-te set the World on Fire . 

How Cha'-ka shot out the Sun 

How Wek'-wek was saved from the Flood . 

Why the Bodega Bay Indians can not stand Cold 

Hoi-ah'-ko Tales of the Southern Mewuk . 

Oo-wel'-lin the Rock Giant 

Tim-me-la'-le the Thunder . 

Wek'-wek's Search for his Father . 

Wek'-wek's Search for his Sister . 

Wek'-wek's Visit to the Underworld People 

Tail' -low the Thunder and T ah' -kip the Lightnin; 

He'-koo-lds the Sun-woman . 

How O'-ye discovered his Wife 

Part 2: Present Day Myths 

Beliefs concerning Animals . 

How Bears resemble People and like to Dance 

How He-le'-jah the Cougar hunts Deer 

How Too-le'-ze the Timber-wolf hunts Deer 

The Stump and the Lost Dog 

The First Teeth go to Soo-iuah-tah the Gopher 

O-lel'-le the Mysterious Bird of Cold Springs 

Soo-hoo'-me the Great Horned Owl 

The Meadowlark, a Gossip and Maker of Trouble 

Ki'-ki'-ak the Mountain Bluejay 

Where Ducks and Geese go to Breed 

Po'-ko-moo the Poison Spider 

Where Koo'-tah the Money-clam came from 
Beliefs concerning Ghosts and the Sign of Death 

Ghosts follow the Pathway of the Wind 

Three Birds scream to frighten the Ghosts 

Ghosts may come back in Soo-hoo'-me the Owl 

A Hole in the Nose saves turning into a Fish 

What good and bad Ghosts turn into 

Ghosts hide in Stumps and Whirlwinds 

Ghosts search for a Big Animal in the Ocean 

JVah-tih'-sah the Sign of Death 



135 
139 
153 

159 
163 
169 

173 
179 
191 

195 
199 
201 
203 

209 



217 



Contents! 



Beliefs concerning Natural Phenomena . . 223 

Thunder 

The Rainbow 

The Earthquake 

Noise 

The Echo 

How the World Grew 
Beliefs concerning Witches, Pigmies, Giants and 

other Fabulous Beings .... 227 

How Witches kill People 

Pigmies and Water People 

The Devil of San Rafael 

Ho-ha'-fe the River Mermaid 

The Rock Giants 
Scientific Names of the Animals . . . 237 

Scientific Names of the Trees and other Plants . 241 

Bibliographj' of California Mythology . . 243 

Index ...... 247 



3Uu£itrations; 



The Giant Ke'-lok . . . Title vignette 

Recital of the Ancient Myths in the Roundhouse at 

Night ..... Frontispiece 

From original painting by E. W. Deming 
Map showing Distribution of the three groups of 

Mewan Tribes ..... 25 

Made by the Author 
The Foothills Country . . . . 37 

From a photograph made by the Author 
The Valley People shrinking from the Light . 41 

From original painting by E. W. Deming 
Tol'-le-loo the Mouse playing his Flute and putting 
the Valley People to sleep so that he can steal the 
Fire . . . . . . 51 

From original painting by E. W. Deming 
Mol'-luk the Condor looking off over the World 

from his Rock on Mount Diablo ... 69 

From original painting by C. J. Hittell 
The Giant Ke'-lok hurling hot Rocks at Wek'-ivek 77 

From original painting by C. J. Hittell 
Kah'-kool the Raven-hunter bringing in his first Deer 95 

From original painting by E. W. Deming 
The Fawns asking Mother Bear if they may play 

with her Baby . . . . . 105 

From original painting by E. W. Deming 
Ancient Mortar-holes in the Granite Rock . . 123 

From a photograph made by the Author 
Funeral of Lo'-wut, wife of Wek'-wek . . 129 

From original painting by E. W. Deming 
Ol'-le the Coyote-man and Wek'-wek at their 

Roundhouse . . . . . 141 

From original painting by E. W. Deming 

11 



SIIu£Strations( 



Wek'-wek on the hilltop killing Geese with his sling 147 

From original painting by E. W . Deming 
The Orphan Boys killing Ducks and Geese by the 

River . . . . . . 175 

From original painting by E. IV. Deming 
Che-ha-lum'-che the Rock Giant catching People 

to eat . . . . . . 233 

From original painting by E. W. Deming 



12 



preface 

IT is our custom to go abroad for the early beliefs 
of mankind and to teach our children the myth- 
ologies of foreign lands, unmindful of the wealth 
and beauty of our American folk-tales. The pres- 
ent collection invites attention to the unique and 
entertaining character of the myths of some of our 
California Indians. 

These tales were told me by the Indians of a 
single stock, the Mewan, the tribes of which are 
confined to central California and have no known 
relatives in any part of the world. They have 
been little visited by ethnologists and during the 
few years that have passed since the tales were col- 
lected, several of the tribes have become extinct. 

The myths are related by the old people after 
the first rains of the winter season, usually in the 
ceremonial roundhouse and always at night by the 
dim light of a small flickering fire. They consti- 
tute the religious history of the tribe, and from 
time immemorial have been handed down by word 
of mouth; from generation to generation they have 
been repeated, without loss and without addition. 

The conceptions of the Indians concerning the 
forces of nature and the character and attributes of 
the early inhabitants of the earth differ so radically 

15 



preface 

from our own that an explanation seems necessary. 
This is supplied by the Introduction, which is in- 
tended to give the reader the view point necessary 
for the full appreciation and enjoyment of the tales. 

C. Hart Merriam 
Washington, D.C., January, 1910. 



16 



Sntrobuction 

THE mythology of the Indians of California 
goes back much farther than our mythology: 
it goes back to the time of the FIRST PEOPLE - 
curious beings who inhabited the country for a long 
period before man was created. 

The myths of the Mewan tribes abound in magic, 
and many of them suggest a moral. They tell of 
the doings of the FIRST PEOPLE - of their search for 
fire; of their hunting exploits; of their adven- 
tures, including battles with giants and miraculous 
escapes from death; of their personal attributes, 
including selfishness and jealousy and their conse- 
quences; of the creation of Indian people by a 
divinity called Coyote-man; and finally of the 
transformation of the FIRST PEOPLE into animals 
and other objects of nature. 

Some explain the origin of thunder, lightning, 
the rainbow, and other natural phenomena; some 
tell of a flood, when only the tops of the highest 
mountains broke the waves; others of a cheerless 
period of cold and darkness before the acquisition 
of the coveted heat and light-giving substance, 
which finally was stolen and brought home to the 
people. 

17 



®i)e Baton of tfie ?B2aorllr 



Fundamental Elements of Mewan Mythology 

The more important features of Mewan Myth- 
ology may be summarized as follows : 

The existence of a first people, beings who differed mater- 
ially from the present Indians, and who, immediately before the 
present Indians were created, were transformed into animals, 
trees, rocks, and in some cases into stars and other celestial 
bodies or forces - for even Sah'-ivin-ne the Hail, and Nuk'-kah 
the Rain were first people. 

The preexistence of Coyote-man, the Creator, a divinity of 
unknown origin and fabulous 'magic,' whose influence was 
always for good.^ 

The existence (in some cases preexistence) of other divini- 
ties, notably WeV-wek the Falcon, grandson and companion of 
Coyote-man, Mol'-luk the Condor, father of Wek'-wek, and 
Pe-ta'-le the Lizard, who, according to several tribes, assisted 
Coyote-man in the creation of Indian people. 

The possession of supernatural powers or magic by Coyote- 
man, Wek'-wek, and others of the early divinities, enabling 
them to perform miracles. 

The prevalence of universal darkness, which in the begin- 
ning overspread the world and continued for a very long 
period. 

The existence at a great distance of a primordial heat and 
light giving substance indifferently called fire, sun, or morn- 
ing - for in the early myths these were considered identical or 
at least interconvertible. ^ 

The presence of a keeper or guardian of the fire, it being 



1 Partial exceptions, doubtless a result of contact with neighboring 
stocks, occur in two tribes: the H'i'-pa say that Coyote-man boasted 
beyond his powers; and the Northern Meiouk say that he was selfish. 

2 A partial exception is the belief of the Hoo-koo-e-ko of Tomales 
Bay who say that in the beginning the source of light was He'-koo-las 
the Sun-woman, whose body was covered with shining abalone shells. 



18 



Sntrobuction 



foreseen by its first possessors that because of its priceless 
value efforts would be made to steal it. 

The theft of fire, which in all cases was stolen from people 
or divinities living at a great distance. 

The preservation of the stolen fire by implanting it in the 
oo'-noo or buckeye tree, where it was and still is, accessible to 
all. 

The power of certain personages or divinities - as Ke'-lok 
the North Giant, Sah'-te the Weasel-man, and O-wah'-to the 
Bigheaded Lizard - to use fire as a weapon by sending it to 
pursue and overwhelm their enemies. 

The conception of the sky as a dome-shaped canopy resting 
on the earth and perforated, on the sides corresponding to the 
cardinal points, with four holes which are continually opening 
and closing. A fifth hole, in the center of the sky, directly 
overhead, is spoken of by some tribes. 

The existence, at or near the north hole in the sky, of 
Thunder Mountain, a place of excessive cold. 

The presence of people on top of or beyond the sky. 

The presence of people on the underside of the earth. 
(This belief may not be held by all the tribes.) 

The existence of Rock Giants, who dwelt in caves and 
carried off and devoured people. 

The tendency of the dead to rise and return to life on the 
third or fourth day after death. 

The prevention of the rising of the dead and their return 
to life by Meadowlark-man, who would not permit immor- 
tality. 

The creation of real people, the ancestors of the present 
Indians, by the transformation of feathers, sticks, or clay. ^ 
Of these beliefs, origin from feathers is the most distinctive 



3 A single exception has been found: The Northern Mewuk account 
for people by the gradual evolution of the offspring of the Cougar-man 
and his wives, the Grizzly Bear-vpoman and the Raccoon-woman. 



19 



Wi)t |9aton of tfje WiotlH 



and widespread, reaching from Fresno Creek north to Clear 
Lake, t 

The completion and perfection of newly created man by 
the gift of five lingers from Pe-td'-le the Lizard-man, who, hav- 
ing five himself, understood their value. 

Minor Beliefs 

In addition to the more fundamental elements 
of Mewan Mythology there are numerous beliefs 
which, while equally widespread, vary with the 
tribe and are of less importance. Among these are 
the tales of the elderberry tree - the source of music 
and other beneficent gifts to the people. In the 
beginning of the world the elderberry tree, as it 
swayed to and fro in the breeze, made sweet music 
for the Star-maidens and kept them from falling 
asleep; its wood served Tol'-le-loo for a flute when 
he put the Valley People to sleep so that he might 
steal the fire; and today it serves for flutes and 
clapper-sticks in nearly all the tribes and plays a 
vital part in their ceremonial observances. 

Other widespread beliefs are that the great hunt- 
ers of the FIRST PEOPLE were the Raven, Cougar, 
and Gray Fox; that Mermaids or Water-women, 
who so metimes harm people, dwell in the ocean 

■♦The widespread belief in the origin of people from feathers accounts 
for the reverence shown feathers by some of the tribes. This feeling 
sometimes manifests itself in a great fear or dread lest the failure to 
show proper respect for feathers, or to observe punctiliously certain 
prescribed acts in connection with the use of feather articles on cere- 
monious occasions, be followed by illness or disaster. This awe of 
feathers, I have observed among the Hoo'-koo-e'-ko of Tomales Bay, 
the Tu'-U-yo'-me of Lake County, and the Northern Meivuk of Calaveras 
County. 

20 



Sntrobuction 



and in certain rivers; that the echo is the Lizard- 
man talking back; that certain divinities have the 
magic power of accomplishing their desires by 
wishing; and that the red parts of birds - as the 
chin of the Humming-bird, the underside of the 
wings and tail of the western Flicker, the breast of 
the Robin, and the red head of the Mountain 
Tanager and certain others, indicate that these 
parts have been in contact with the fire. 
Local or Tribal Myths 
There are also numerous local beliefs, confined 
to particular tribes or groups of tribes. Thus the 
Inneko tribes, those living north of San Francisco 
Bay, tell of a flood; the two coast tribes say that in 
the beginning the Divinity Coyote-man came to 
America from the west by crossing the Pacific 
Ocean on a raft; the Northern Mewuk believe that 
they came from the Cougar-man and Grizzly Bear- 
woman ; the Tu'-le-yo'me say that when Sah'-te 
set the world on fire. Coyote-man made the flood 
and put out the fire. Other local myths are that 
Wek'-wek was born of a rock; that Cha-ke the 
Tule-wren, a poor despised orphan boy, shot out 
the sun, leaving the world in total darkness; that 
His'-sik the Skunk, whose greed and oppression 
were intolerable, was destroyed by the superior 
cunning of Too'-wik the Badger; that He'-koo-lds 
the Sun-woman owed her brilliancy to a coat of 
resplendent abalone shells; that the We'-ke-wil'-lah 
brothers, tiny Shrews, stole the fire from Kah'-kah- 

21 



i;f)e Baton of tfje Wiovlii 



te the Crow and by touching a bug to the spark 
made the first firefly. Numerous others will be 
found in the tales - in fact every tribe has myths of 
its own. Furthermore, in the general mythologies, 
each band or subtribe has slight variants, so that 
even the creation myths, as related by different 
bands, present minor differences. 

The repeated mention in the mythologies of cer- 
tain objects and practices (as the ceremonial round- 
house, the use of the stone mortar and pestle for 
grinding acorns, the use of baskets for cooking, the 
use of the bow and arrow and sling in hunting, the 
practice of gambling by means of the hand-game, 
and many others) proves that these objects and 
observances are not of recent introduction but were 
among the early possessions and practices of the 
Mewan tribes. 

It is important to discriminate between the real 
mythology of a people, the tales that deal with 
personages and events of the very remote past, and 
present day myths, which deal with happenings of 
the hour or of the very recent past. Some of the 
present day myths of the Mewan tribes may be 
found in a separate chapter at the end of the vol- 
ume. 

Characteristics of the First People perpetuated in 
THEIR Final Forms 

The names of individual personages among the 
FIRST PEOPLE were carried on to the animals, ob- 
jects, or forces which these people became at the 

22 



3ntrobuction 



time of their final transformation, and are still 
borne by them. Hence in the accompanying stories 
the names of the various animals and objects should 
not be understood as referring to them as they exist 
today but to their remote ancestors among the FIRST 
PEOPLE. Whatever their original form - and the 
Indian conception seems to picture them as half 
human - the distinctive attributes of the FIRST PEO- 
PLE were in the main handed down to the animals 
and objects they finally became. 

Thus Oo-sQom'-ma-te's fondness for acorns was 
not diminished by her transformation into the 
Grizzly Bear; Yu'-wel's skill as a hunter did not 
forsake him when he turned into the Gray Fox; 
He-le'-jah's prowess as a deer slayer lost nothing 
when he changed to the Cougar; and Too'-pe's 
nocturnal ways were not abandoned when she be- 
came the Kangaroo Rat. Similarly, Ko-to'-lah's 
habit of jumping into the water is perpetuated by 
the Frog; Too'-wek's preeminence as a digger is 
still conspicuous in the Badger; To-to'-ka-no's loud 
penetrating voice is even now a signal characteris- 
tic of the Sandhill Crane; while the swiftness of 
flight of Wek'-wek, Hoo-loo'-e, and Le'-che-che 
who could shoot through the holes in the sky, ever 
opening and closing with lightning rapidity, are 
today marked attributes of the Falcon, Dove, and 
Humming-bird. So it is also with Nuk'-kah the 
Shower and Sah'-win-ne the Hail, who were sent 
to overtake and capture a fleeing enemy and who 

23 



W\)t ©aton of tfje 'movlh 



to this day are noted for the velocity and force of 
their movements. Such cases might be multiplied 
almost indefinitely. 

Distribution of the Mewan Indians ^ 

The territory of the Mewan tribes comprised 
the lower slopes and foothills of the Sierra Nevada 
between the Cosumnes River on the north and 
Fresno Creek on the south, with the adjacent plain 
from the foothills to Suisun Bay, and also two 
smaller disconnected areas north of San Francisco 
Bay- one in the interior, reaching from Pope Val- 
ley to the south end of Clear Lake, the other on the 
coast, from Golden Gate northerly nearly to the 
mouth of Russian River. (See accompanying 
map.) 

At present the vanishing remnants of the Mewuk 
tribes are scattered over their old territory on the 
west flank of the Sierra; the handful that remain 
of the Tuleyome tribe are gathered in a small 
rancheria on Putah Creek in Lake County; while 
the sole survivors of the Hookooeko and Olamentko 
tribes (in each case a single person) still cling to 
their original homes on Tomales and Bodega Bays. 
Differences in Language 

The California tribes are stationary, not noma- 
dic ; they have lived for thousands of years in the 
places they now occupy, or did occupy until driven 

5 For a detailed account of the distribution of these tribes see my 
article entitled, "Distribution and Classification of the Mewan stock 
of California," American Anthropologist, vol. ix, 338-357. 

24 



Sntrobuction 



away by the whites ; and during this long period of 
isolation they have evolved different languages - 
for even among tribes of the same linguistic group 
the differences in language are often so great that 
members of one tribe cannot understand the speech 
of another.^ 

As the languages of the tribes composing the 
Mewan stock show varying degrees of kinship, so 
their myths exhibit varying relationships. Those 
of the Sierra region are the most closely interre- 
lated; those of the San Francisco Bay region and 
northward the most divergent. 



6 Hence in the accompanying myths the name of the same personage 
or animal differs according to the tribe speaking. Thus Coyote-man 
may be Ah-hd'-le, Os-sd'-le, O-la-choo, 0-la-nah, O-let'-te, Ol'-le, or 
O'-ye. Similarly, the Humming-bird may be Koo-loo'-loo, Koo-loo'-pe, 
or Le'-che-che. The Falcon or Duck-hawk, on the other hand, is 
Wek'-iuek in all the tribes. This is because his name is derived from 
his cry. Many other Indian names of mammals and birds have a sim- 
ilar origin. 

27 



THE accompanying illustrations are from 
paintings made expressly for the present col- 
lection of Myths by Edwin W. Deming of 
New York and Charles J. Hittell of San Francisco. 
Of the stories here published, only a few are 
complete, and several consist of the merest frag- 
ments. All however are of ethnologic value, for 
even those expressing a single idea may prove of 
service in tracing relationship. In preparing them 
for the press my aim has been to reproduce them 
in simple English, adhering as closely as possible to 
the form in which they were told me by the In- 
dians. Certain brief passages and repetitions have 
been omitted ; nothing has been added. 

All the Indian words, whether tribal names or 
names of objects, are written in simple phonetic 
English. The letter a, when unmarked, has the 
sound of a in fat; a long (a) has the sound of a in 
fate; and the ah sound is always spelled, ah. 



29 



^art I: Ancient Mvt^^ 

Stories of the First People - People who lived 
BEFORE Real People were created 

The Mewuk tribes, those inhabiting the western slopes and 
foothills of the Sierra, call the ancient myths oo'-ten-ne or 
oot'-ne, meaning the history of the first people. (The North- 
ern Mewuk say oo'-ten nas'-se-sa.) In this connection it may 
be significant that the name of Bower Cave, the home of Too'- 
le and He-le'-jah, two great chiefs of the first people^ is 
Oo'-tin. 



31 



How WiT'-TAB-BAH THE ROBIN GOT HIS RED 

Breast 

Fragment of a Tale of the Northern Mewuk 
As told in the mountains near Mokelumne River 

Personage 

Wit'-tab-bah who became the Robin {Planesticus migratorius 

propinquus) 



32 



3|oto Wit= tab=lia|) tfje Eofjin got W 
aaeb Preasit 



ALONG time ago the world was dark and 
cold and the people had no fire. Wit'-tab- 
bah the Robin learned where the fire was 
and went on a far journey to get it. After he had 
traveled a great distance he came to the place and 
stole it and carried it back to the people. Every 
night on the way he lay with his breast over it to 
keep it from getting cold; this turned his breast 
red. Finally he reached home with it and gave it 
to the people. Then he made the Sun out of it, 
but before doing this he put some into the oo'-noo 
tree (the buckeye) so the people could get it when 
they needed it. From that day to this all the peo- 
ple have known that when they want fire they can 
get it by rubbing an oo'-noo stick against a piece of 
dry wood ; this makes the flame come out. 



33 



How Ah-ha'-le stole the Sun for the Valley 

People 

A Tale of the Southern Mewuk 
A long time ago there were two countries, the Valley Country 
and the Foothills Country, and each had its own kind of people. 
The Valley Country was the big flat land which the white 
people call the San Joaquin Plain; it had no trees and no Sun 
but was always enveloped in fog and was always cold and dark. 
The Foothills Country began on the east side of the valley and 
reached up into the mountains; it was covered with trees and 
had the Sun. 

Two versions of the story have been obtained : ( I ) How 
Ah-ha'-le stole the Sun, told by the Mariposa Mewuk; and (2) 
How Ah-ha'-le stole the Morning, told by the Chowchilla 
Mewuk. 

How Ah-ha'-le Stole the Sun 
As told by the Mariposa Mewuk 

Personages 
Ah-hd'-le the Coyote-man 

To-to'-kan-no Chief of the Valley People, who became the 
Sandhill Crane 

Ah-wahn'-dah Keeper of the Sun, who became the Turtle. 



34 



?|ott) a]b=!ia=le sitole tlje ^un for tfje 
"^allep ^People 

As told by the Mariposa Mewuk 

TO-TO'-KAN-NO the Sandhill Crane was 
chief of the Valley People and Ah-hd'-le, 
the Coyote-man lived with him. Their 
country was cold and dark and full of fog. 

Ah-hd'le was discontented and traveled all 
about, trying to find a better place for the people. 
After a while he came to the Foothills Country 
where it began to be light. He went on a little 
farther and for the first time in his life saw trees, 
and found the country dry and warm, and good 
to look at. Soon he saw the Foothills People and 
found their village. He was himself a magician 
or witch doctor, so he turned into one of the Foot- 
hills People and mingled with them to see what 
they had and what they were doing. He saw that 
they had fire, which made light and became Wut'- 
too the Sun. He saw also that there were both 
men and women, that the women pounded acorns 
and cooked acorn mush in baskets, and that every- 
body ate food. He ate with them and learned that 
food was good. 

When his belly was full he went home and told 
the chief To-to'-kan-no that he had found a good 

35 



m)t ©aton of tte ^orltr 



place where there were people who had the sun 
and moon and stars, and women, and things to 
eat. He then asked To-to'-kan-no, "What are we 
going to do? Are we going to stay down here in 
the dark and never eat? The people up there have 
wives and children; the women make acorn soup 
and other things; the men have light and can see 
to hunt and kill deer. We live down here in the 
dark and have no women and nothing to eat. 
What are we going to do?" 

Chief To-to'-kan-no answered; "Those things 
are not worth having. I don't want the Sun, nor 
the light, nor any of those things. Go back up there 
if you want to." 

Ah-hd'le went back to the foothills and did as 
he had done before, and liked the country and the 
people. Then he returned and told To-to'-kan-no 
what he had told him before, and again asked, 
"What are we going to do? Can't we buy the 
Sun? The people up there send the Sun away 
nights so diey can sleep, and it comes back every 
day so they can see to hunt and get things to eat 
and have a good time. I like the Sun. Let us buy 
him." 

To-to'-kan-no answered, "What is the matter 
with you? What would you do with the Sun; 
how would you use it?" But Ah-hd'-le was not 
satisfied. He went back to the Foothills People 
several times, and the more he saw of the Sun the 
more he wanted it. But To-to'-kan-no always said 

36 



H 



o 
o 



O 







^ancient 0pti\i 



he did not want it. Finally however he told 
Ah-hd'-le that he might go and find out what it 
would cost. 

Ah-hd'le went and found that the people would 
not sell it; that if he got it he would have to steal 
it. And this would be very difficult, for Ah-wahn- 
dah the Turtle, keeper of the Sun, was most watch- 
ful ; he slept only a few minutes at a time and then 
stood up and looked around; besides, when he slept 
he always kept one eye open. If Ah-hd'-le moved 
his foot Ah-wahn'-dah would pick up his bow and 
arrow. Ah-hd'le felt discouraged and did not 
know what to do. He feared that in order to get 
the Sun he would have to take Ah-wahn'-dah also. 

But he decided to try once more, so he went 
again and turned into a man of the Foothills Peo- 
ple. About four o'clock in the afternoon all the 
hunters went off to hunt deer. Then Ah-hd'-le 
turned into a big oak limb and fell down on the 
trail, and wished that Ah-wahn'-dah the Sun's 
keeper would come along first. And so it hap- 
pened, for soon Ah-wahn'-dah came along the trail, 
saw the crooked limb, picked it up, carried it home 
on his shoulder, and threw it down on the ground. 
After supper he picked it up again and threw it 
against the fire, but it would not lay flat for it was 
very crooked and always turned up. Finally Ah- 
wahn'-dah threw it right into the middle of the 
fire. Then he looked all around, but could not see 
anybody. Ah-hd'le who was now in the fire did 

39 



tE^fjc ©aton of tfje ®iorlb 



not burn, but kept perfectly still and wished the 
keeper, Ah-wahn'-dah, would go to sleep. 

Soon this happened and Ah-iiDahn'-dah fell fast 
asleep. Then Ah-ha-le changed back into his own 
form and seized the Sun and ran quickly away with 
it. 

Ah-wahn'-dah awoke and saw that the Sun was 
gone and called everybody to come quick and find 
it, but they could not for Ah-ha-le had taken it 
down through the fog to the Valley People. 

But when the Valley People saw it they were 
afraid and turned away from it, for it was too 
bright and hurt their eyes, and they said they could 
never sleep. 

Ah-hd'le took it to the chief, To-to'-kan-tio, but 
To-to'-kan-no would not have it; he said he didn't 
understand it; that Ah-ha-le must make it go, for 
he had seen how the Foothills People did it. 

When To-to'-kan-no refused to have anything to 
do with the Sun, Ah-hd'-le was disappointed, for 
he had worked very hard to get it. 

Still he said, "Well, I'll make it go." 

So he carried the Sun west to the place where the 
sky comes down to the earth, and found the west 
hole in the sky, and told Wut'-too to go through 
the hole and down under the earth and come up on 
the east side and climb up through the east hole in 
the sky, and work in two places - to make light over 
the Foothills People first, then come on down and 
make light over the Valley People, and then go 

40 




The Valley People shrinking from the Light. " Ah-ha-h stole the 

Sun and brought it down through the fog and darkness^^to the 

Valle\' People, but they were afraid and turned from it." 



Ancient ilptf)£; 



through the west hole again and back under the 
earth so the people could sleep, and to keep on 
doing this, traveling all the time. 

Wut'-too the Sun did as he was told. Then To- 
to'-kan-no and all the Valley People were glad, 
because they could see to hunt, and the Foothills 
People were satisfied too, for they had the light 
in the daytime so they could see, and at night the 
Sun went away so all the people could sleep. 

After this, when the Sun was in the sky as it is 
now, all the FIRST PEOPLE turned into animals. 



43 



How Ah-ha'-le stole the Morning 

As told by the Chowchilla Mewuk 



Personages 

Ah-hd'-le the Coyote-man 

We'-wis-sool Chief of the Valley People, who became the 
Golden Eagle ' 

Ah-iuahn'-dah Keeper of the Morning, who became the 
Turtle 



7 The word We'-wis-sool or IFe'-ivu-sool is not of Mewan origin 
but is borrowed from the Yokut tribes immediately to the south -the 
Chuk-chan'-sy and Kosh-sho'-o. In the Mewuk language the Golden 
Eagle is called IFe'-pi-a/ik or JVe-fi-ah'-gah. 



44 



?|ob3 af)=j)a=le gtole tfje iHorning 

As told by the Chowchilla Mewuk 

IN the long ago time the world was dark and 
there was no fire. The only light was the 
Morning,^ and it was so far away in the high 
mountains of the east that the people could not see 
it; they lived in total darkness. The chief We'- 
wis-sool, the Golden Eagle, felt very badly because 
it was always dark and cried all the time. 

Ah-ha-le the Coyote-man made up his mind to 
go and get the Morning in order that the people 
might have light. So he set out on the long jour- 
ney to the east, up over the high mountains, saying, 
"I'm going to get the Morning." 

Finally he came to Ah-wahn-dah the Turtle. 
Ah-wahn'-dah was guardian of the Morning; he 
wore a big basket on his back. When Ah-ha-le 
came close to Ah-wahn'-dah he was afraid some- 
thing would catch him and carry him off. He said 
to himself, "I'm going to turn myself into a log of 
wood so I'll be too heavy to be carried off," and he 
turned into a big dry limb. Ah-wahn'-dah the 
Turtle put fire to the limb, but it would not burn; 
then he fell asleep. 

8 Morning, in this story, is obviously synonymous with sun and 
light, and probably with fire also, as in the preceding story. 

4S 



Zf)t ©aton ot tf)E Wiov^ 



When the Guardian had gone to sleep Ah-hd'-le 
got up and said, "Now I'm going to get the Morn- 
ing." So he changed back into his own form and 
put out his foot and touched the Morning, and it 
growled. He then caught hold of it and jumped 
quickly and ran away with it and brought it back 
to his people. 

When he arrived he said to We'-wis-sool the 
Eagle, "How are you?" 

We'-wis-sool answered, "All right," but was still 
crying because it was dark. 

Then Ah-hd'-le said, "Tomorrow morning it is 
going to be light," but We'-wis-sool did not believe 
him. 

In the morning Ah-hd'-le gave the people the 
light. We'-wis-sool was very happy and asked 
Ah-hd'-le where he got it, and Ah-hd'-le told him. 
Then the people began to walk around and find 
things to eat, for now they could see. 



46 



How TOL'-LE-LOO GOT THE FiRE FOR THE 

Mountain People 

A Tale of the Northern Mewuk 
The Mountain People lived in the Sierra near the Moke- 
lumne River, which they called Ut'-ta Wah-kah'-loo, meaning 
big river. They had no fire and the world was dark. 

The Valley People lived on the San Joaquin Plain, which 
they called Ol-law'-win. Their roundhouse was not far from 
the spot now occupied by the city of Stockton. They had a 
small fire in the middle of the roundhouse and Wit'-tab-bah 
the Robin was its keeper. 

Personages 

O-ld'-choo the Coyote-man 

Tol'-le-loo the flute-player who became the White-footed 
Mouse 

Wek'-wek a Chief of the Valley People, who became the 
Falcon 

We-pi-ah'-gah a Chief of the Valley People, who became the 
Golden Eagle 

Mol'-luk who became the Condor 

Hoo'-a-zoo who became the Turkey Buzzard 

Hoo-loo'-e who became the Dove 

Te-wi-yu who became the Red-shafted Flicker 

PFit'-tab-bah Keeper of the Fire, who became the Robin 

Hah-ki'-ah who became the Elk 

Hal'-loo-zoo who became the Antelope 

Sahk'-muTn-chah who became the Cinnamon Bear 

Le'-che-che who became the Humming-bird 

Le-che-koo' -tah-mah who became another small bird with a 
long bill 



48 



?|ob3 t!rol=le4oo pt tfte Jf ire for tfje 
iWountain people 

WEK'-WEK the Falcon and We'-pi-ah'- 
gah the Golden Eagle were Chiefs of 
the Valley People. Among the members 
of their tribe were Mol'-luk the Condor; Hoo'-a- 
zoo the Turkey Buzzard; Hoo-loo'-e the Dove; 
Te-wi'-yu the Red-shafted Flicker, who must have 
been very close to the fire as any one can see from 
the red under his wings and tail, and Wit'-tab-bah 
the red-breasted Robin, who was keeper of the fire. 
There were also Hah-ki'-ah the Elk, Hal'-loo-zoo 
the Antelope, Sahk' -mum-chah the Cinnamon 
Bear, and others. 

The Mountain People were in darkness and 
wanted fire but did not know where it was or how 
to get it. 0-la-choo the Coyote-man tried hard to 
find it but did not succeed. After a while Tol'-le- 
loo the White-footed Mouse discovered the fire and 
the Mountain People sent him to steal it. 

Tol'-le-loo took his flute (loo'-lah) of elderberry 
wood and went down into the valley and found the 
big roundhouse of Wek'-wek and We-pi-ah'-gah 
and began to play. The people liked the music 
and asked him to come inside. So he went in 
and played for them. Soon all the people felt 

49 



Ctje ©aton of tfjc OTorlb 



sleepy. Wit'-tab-bah the Robin was sure that Tol'- 
le-loo had come to steal the fire, so he spread him- 
self over it and covered it all up in order to hide it, 
and it turned his breast red. But Tol'-le-loo kept 
on playing his flute and in a little w^hile all the 
people vi^ere sound asleep ; even Wif-tab-bah could 
not keep awake. 

Then Tol'-le-loo ran up to Wit'-tab-bah and cut 
a little hole in his wing and crawled through and 
stole the fire and put it inside his flute. When he 
had done this he ran out with it and climbed up to 
the top of the high mountain called Oo'-yum-bel'-le 
(Mount Diablo) and made a great fire which light- 
ed up all the country till even the blue mountains 
far away in the east [the Sierra Nevada range] 
could be seen. Before this all the world was dark. 

When Wek'-wek awoke he saw the fire on Oo'- 
yum-bel'-le and knew that Tol'-le-loo had stolen 
it. So he ran out and followed him and after a 
while caught him. 

Tol'-le-loo said, "Look and see if I have the 
fire." 

Wek'-wek looked but could not find it, for it was 
inside the flute. Then Wek'-wek pitched Tol'-le- 
loo into the water and let him go. 

Tol'-le-loo got out and went east into the moun- 
tains and carried the fire in his flute to the Moun- 
tain People; then he took it out of the flute and 
put it on the ground and covered it with leaves and 
pine needles and tied it up in a small bundle. 

50 



:::* 



TO 







glncient iWptfjS 



O-ld'-choo the Coyote smelled it and wanted to 
steal it. He came up and pushed it with his nose 
and was going to swallow it when it suddenly shot 
up into the sky and became the Sun. 

O-ld'-choo sent Le'-che-che the Humming-bird, 
and another bird, named Le-che-koo' -tah-mah, who 
also had a long bill, after it, but they could not 
catch it and came back without it. 

The people took the fire that was left and put 
it into two trees, oo'-noo the buckeye and mon-o-go 
the incense cedar, where it still is and where it can 
be had by anyone who wants it. 

Note -This story has been told me by several 
Mewuk Indians independently. The only varia- 
tion of consequence is that, in one version, JVek'- 
fwek and We-pi-ah'-gah gave a feast and invited 
the Mountain People to come ; and it was while 
they were there that ToV-le-loo put the Valley Peo- 
ple to sleep with his flute and ran off with the fire. 
The story is called Oo'-ten-nas'-se-sa^ though of 
course this is only a part. 



S3 



Why the Lizard Man did not restore Dead 
People to Life 

Outline of Creation Myth of the Northern Mewuk as 
related at Wal'le in the upper foothills immediately south of 
the Mokelumne River 

Personages 
Oo-soo'-ma-te the Grizzly Bear-woman 
Hoi-ah'-ko the First People 
Pe-ta'-lit-te the Little Lizard-man 
Suk'-ka-de the Black Lizard-man 
Yu'-kah-loo the Meadowlark-man 

Followed by a corresponding myth of the Pd'-we-nan tribe 
of Midoo stock from Poo-soo'-ne, at the junction of the Amer- 
ican River with the Sacramento. 



54 



Wf)V tlje %i}avh iHan Uh not restore 
Beati ^People to life 

OO-SOO'-MA-TE the Grizzly Bear and 
Hoi-ah' ko the First People made the first 
Mewuk [Indian people]. When the Me- 
wuk were made they had no hands to take hold of 
things. Then Pe-td'-lit-te the Little Lizard and 
Suk'-ka-de the Black Lizard gave them hands with 
five fingers. 

When the first Mewuk [Indian] ditd,Suk'-ka-de 
the Black Lizard was sorry and set to work to bring 
him back to life. But Yu'-kah-loo the Meadow- 
lark came and drove him away, saying, ^^Mewuk 
ut'-tud-dah, Mewuk tuk'-tuk-ko^^ - meaning, Peo- 
ple no good, people smell. 

Note -The Pd'-we-nan, who lived on the Sac- 
ramento and Feather Rivers from the Junction of 
American River northward nearly to the Yuba, 
hold a belief which, while in some respects strik- 
ingly similar, is in other respects widely different. 
They say: 

In the beginning Hi'-kaht the great chief said 
that when a person died, he should come to life 
on the fourth day thereafter, and should live again. 

Then Hool the Meadowlark-man said No; he 

5S 



i;f)e Baton of tfje 18Eorlb 



did not want Nis'-se-nan [people] to live again 
after they were dead. He said Nis'-se-nan were 
no good and by and by would smell ; they had bet- 
ter stay dead. 

Yawm the Coyote-man agreed with Hool the 
Meadowlark-man - he did not want people to 
live again ; he wanted them to stay dead. 

Yawm the Coyote-man had a daughter of whom 
he was very fond. 

Hi'-kaht the great chief, after hearing Yawm say 
that he wanted people to stay dead after they died, 
went out into the brush and took a branch of a plant 
called Sak-ki-ak and laid it in the trail. In the 
night the plant turned into Koi'-maw the rattle- 
snake. The next morning Yawm's daughter came 
along the trail and Koi'-maw bit her and she died. 

Yawm the Coyote-man found the dead body of 
his daughter and felt badly. He picked her up 
and said, "In four days you will come to life 
again." 

But Hi'-kaht replied, "No, she will not come to 
life again. You said that when people died you 
wanted them to stay dead. So your daughter will 
stay dead and will not live again." 

This is the reason why everybody stays dead after 
they die and nobody lives again. 



56 



The Coyote and the Lizard 

Fragment of a Creation Story of the Northern Mewuk 
From Aw'kim in the upper foothills between Middle and 
South Forks of Cosumnes River 

Personages 
O-ld'-choo the Coyote-man 
Pe-td'-le the Lizard-man 
Yu'-ka-loo the Meadowlark-man 
With a note on a Southern Nissenan creation myth in 
which the Moon figures as one of the early divinities 



58 



€f^t Copote anb tfie li^arb 

O-LA'-CHOO the Coyote-man and Pe-td'-le 
the little Lizard-man made the world and 
everything in it. 
After they had done this, Pe-td'-le wanted to turn 
into the Moon but O-ld'-choo the Coyote-man and 
Yu'-ka-loo the Meadowlark-man would not allow 
him to do so. ' 



' This reference to the moon is the only one I have discovered 
among the Mewuk creation myths. But the next people on the north - 
the Nissenan- count the Moon-man among the early divinities. The 
Southern Nissenan give the following account of the creation of man: 

In the beginning, Pombok the Moon-man, O'-teh the Coyote-man, and 
Pit-chak the Lizard-man decided to make people but differed as to what 
the first man should be like, for each of the three wanted man to be 
like himself. 

After they had argued a long time they finally agreed that man 
should have a round face like the Moon-man, but they could not agree 
as to his hands. Coyote-man insisted that he should have paws like 
his own, but Lizard-man said that paws would be of no use -that man 
should have five fingers so he could take hold of things. Finally Lizard- 
man carried his point and gave man five long fingers like his own. 

Coyote-man never forgave him, and to this day the Coyote hunts 
the lizard and kills him whenever he can. 



59 



How THE People got Five Fingers ; How they 

OBTAINED Fire; and How they broke 

UP into Tribes 

Creation Story of the Middle Mewuk 
As told at Td-la-sa'-na in the Tuolumne foothills near Bald 
Rock 

Personages 
Os-sd'-le the Coyote-man, whose name was changed to 
Kat'-wah 

Pe-td'-le the Little Lizard who gave man five fingers 
Loo'-loo-e the White-footed Mouse, who stole the fire 
We-pi-ah'-gah the Golden Eagle, chief of the Valley People 
Wek'-wek the Falcon 
Sah'-win-ne the Hail Storm 
Nui'-kah the Thunder Shower 



60 



?|ohJ tf^t ^People got jFibe jFinsersJ; 

?|ohJ tfjep obtaineb Jf ire; anb ?|ob3 

tbep broke up into ^ribeg 

A LL the world was dark. 
/ \ Os-sa-le the Coyote-man and Pe-td'-le 
JL iLthe Lizard-man were First People. They 
tried to make Indian people, each like himself. 
Os-sa-le said he was going to make man just like 
himself. 

Pe-td'-le said that would be absurd ; "How could 
man eat or take hold of anything if he had no 
fingers?" 

So they quarrelled, and Os-sd'-le tried to kill 
Pe-td'-le ; but Pe-td'-le slid into a crack in a rock 
where Os-sd'-le could not reach him. Then they 
talked and argued for a long time. After a while 
Pe-td'-le came out ahead and when they made peo- 
ple he gave them five fingers. 

The world was dark and everybody wanted light 
and fire. By and by Pe-td'-le the Lizard said, "I 
see smoke down in the valley; who will go and 
get it. Loo'-loo-e the White-footed Mouse runs 
fast and plays the flute well; he had better go." 
So Loo'-loo-e went with his flute (loo'-lah) and 
found the home of the Valley People and played 

61 



Zi)t ISatDti of tfje Wioxlh 



for them. They liked his music and gave a big 
feast and asked him to come into the roundhouse 
and play so that everyone might hear him. 

We'-pi-ah'-gah the Eagle was chief of the Val- 
ley People and JVek'-wek the Falcon lived with 
him. When all the people had assembled and 
Loo'-loo-e the Mouse was there with his flute, 
Captain We-pi-ah'-gah took the big feather blan- 
ket called kook'-si-u, made of feathers of Mol'-luk 
the Condor, and closed the doorway with it and 
made it very tight, for he had a feeling that Loo'- 
loo-e might try to steal something and run off with 
it. 

Then Loo'-loo-e took his flute and began to play; 
he lay on his back and rocked to and fro and played 
for a long time. Everyone liked the music and 
felt happy. In a little while they all became sleepy. 
Soon Loo'-loo-e looked around and saw that they 
were asleep ; but he kept on playing till everybody 
was sound asleep. Then he got up and went to the 
fire and stole it all - two small coals - and put them 
in his flute and started to run away. But he could 
not get out of the roundhouse because of the thick 
feather blanket which We-pi-ah'-gah had hung 
over the doorway. So he stopped and cut a hole 
through it with his teeth and then ran out and hur- 
ried toward the mountains. 

After a while the people awoke and found that 
the fire was gone. They were sure that Loo'-loo-e 
the Mouse had stolen it, and said, "Whom can we 

62 



lUncicnt iWptijs! 



send who is fast enough to overtake him? Of all 
our people only Sah'-win-ne the Hail and Nuk'- 
kah the Shower are fast enough." So they sent 
these two to catch him. They rushed off toward the 
mountains and overtook him. 

He saw them coming and put one coal in the 
oo'-noo tree (buckeye) and threw the other in the 
water. When Sah'-win-ne and Nuk'-kah caught 
him they could not find the coals. He told them 
to look, he had nothing. They looked and found 
nothing, and went back and told the Valley People. 
Then Loo'-loo-e took the coal from the oo'noo 
tree and put it back in his flute and ran up into the 
mountains with it and gave it to his people, and 
they put it in the middle of the roundhouse. Before 
this their country was dark, and they had always 
eaten their food raw. Now they could see and 
could cook meat. 

Then Os-sd'-le the Coyote-man brought the in- 
testines of a deer and put them on the fire, cover- 
ing it up and nearly putting it out. Because of 
his selfishness in doing this the people changed 
his name from Os-sd'-le to Kat'-wah (greedy), 
which they call him to this day. 

Then the people felt cold and only those in the 
middle of the roundhouse could talk as they had 
talked before. Those around the sides were so 
cold that their teeth chattered and they could not 
talk plainly. They separated into four groups on 
the four sides of the house - one on the north, one 

63 



Cfje Baton of tfte OTorlb 



on the south, one on the east, and one on the west - 
and each group began to speak differently from the 
others, and also differently from the one in the 
middle. This is the way the speech of the people 
began to break up into five languages, and this is 
the way the five tribes " began - the people being 
driven apart by the selfishness of Coyote. 



10 The Me'iaa/i knew only five tribes; their own; the people to the 
north, whom they call Tam'-moo-lek or Tah-mah-ld'-ko (from Tah'- 
mah, north) ; those on the east, whom they call Mo'-nok or He'-sah-duk 
(from He' -sum, east) ; those on the south, whom they call Choo'-mat-tuk 
(from Choo'-match, south), and those on the west, whom they call 
O'-loo-kuk or Ol'-lo-kuk (from O'-lo-wtn or Ol'-to-ivin, meaning down 
west -in the valley). 

64 



'#•* 



The Birth of Wek'-wek and the Creation 
OF Man 

The Hool-poom'-ne Story of Creation 
The Hool-poom'-ne lived on the east side of the lower Sac- 
ramento River, beginning a few miles below the place where the 
city of Sacramento now stands. They are now extinct. 

Personages 

O-let'-te Coyote-man, the Creator 

Mol'-luk the Condor, father of Wek'-wek 

Wek'-wek the Falcon, son of Mol'-luk and grandson of 
O-let'-te 

Hul'-luk mi-yum'-ko the two beautiful women chiefs of the 
Star-people 

Os-so-so'-li Pleiades, one of the Star-women 

Ke'-lok the North Giant 

Hoo-soo'-pe the Mermaids or Water-maidens, sisters of 
Wek'-wek 

Choo'-hoo the Turkey Buzzard 

Kok'-kol the Raven 

Ah-wet'-che the Crow 

Koo-loo'-loo the Humming-bird 

Fragment of Version told by the Hoo'-koo-e-ko of 
ToMALEs Bay 

Personages 
O'-ye the Coyote-man 
Wek'-wek the Falcon 
Koo-loo'-pis the Humming-bird 



66 



*. 



i. 

tlTfje Pirtf) of l^ek^ttjek anb tfje 
Creation of jHan 

IN the beginning there was a huge bird of the 
vulture kind whose name was Mol'-luk, the 
California Condor. His home was on the 
mountain called Oo'-yum-bel'-le (Mount Diablo), 
whence he could look out over the world - westerly 
over San Francisco Bay and the great ocean; east- 
erly over the tules and the broad fiat Joaquin Val- 
ley. 

Every morning Mol'-luk went off to hunt, and 
every evening he came back to roost on a large 
rock on the east side of the mountain. One morn- 
ing he noticed that something was the matter with 
the rock, but did not know what the trouble was, 
or what to do for it. So he went off to consult the 
doctors. The doctors were brothers, two dark 
snipe-like little birds who lived on a small creek 
near the foot of the mountain. He told them his 
rock was sick and asked them to go with him, and 
led them to it. When they saw the rock they said, 
"The rock is your wife ; she is going to give you a 
child;" and added, "we must make a big fire." 
Then all three set to work packing wood; they 
worked hard and brought a large quantity and 
made a big fire. Then they took hold of the rock, 

67 



Zf)t Baton of ti)t Wiovltj 



tore it loose, rolled it into the fire, and piled more 
wood around it. When the rock became hot, it 
burst open with a great noise, and from the inside 
out darted Wek'-wek the Falcon. As he came 
out he said ^wek^ and passed on swiftly without 
stopping. He flew over all the country- north, 
south, east, and west- to see what it was like. 

At that time there were no people. And there 
were no elderberry trees except a single one far 
away to the east in the place where the Sun gets 
up. There, in a den of rattlesnakes on a round 
topped hill grew lah'-pah the elderberry tree. Its 
branches, as they swayed in the wind, made a sweet 
musical sound. The tree sang; it sang all the time, 
day and night, and the song was good to hear. 
Wek'-wek looked and listened and wished he could 
have the tree. Near by he saw two Hol-luk'-ki or 
Star-people, and as he looked he perceived that they 
were the Hul-luk mi-yum'-ko - the great and beau- 
tiful women-chiefs of the Star-people. One was 
the Morning Star, the other Pleiades Os-so-so'-li. 
They were watching and working close by the 
elderberry tree. Wek'-wek liked the music and 
asked the Star-women about it. They told him that 
the tree whistled songs that kept them awake all 
day and all night so they could work all the time 
and never grow sleepy. They had the rattlesnakes 
to keep the birds from carr^ang ofT the elderberries. 

Then Wek'-wek returned to his home on Oo- 
yum-bel'-le (Mount Diablo) and told Mo/'-/m^ his 

68 




Mol'-luk the t'nndor looklnf; off over the \\ orlJ tioni his Rock on 

Mount Diablo 



Ancient iHptljfi 



father what he had seen. He said he had seen the 
beautiful Star-women and had heard the soft whist- 
ling song of the elderberry tree that keeps one from 
feeling sleepy. He asked his father how they could 
get the music tree and have it at their home on Oo'- 
yum-bel'-le. 

Mol'-luk answered, "My son, I do not know; I 
am not very wise ; you will have to ask your grand- 
father; he knows everything." 

"Where is my grandfather?" asked Wek'-wek. 

"He is by the ocean," Mol'-luk replied. 

" I never saw him," said JVek'-wek. 

His father asked, " Didn't you see something like 
a stump bobbing in the water and making a noise 
as it went up and down?" 

"Yes," said Wek'-wek, " I saw that." 

"Well," replied Mol'-luk, "that is your grand- 
father." 

"How can I get him?" asked Wek'-wek. 

"You can't get all of him, but perhaps you can 
break off a little piece and in that way get him." 

So Wek'-wek flew off to the ocean, found the 
stump bobbing in the water, and tore off a little 
piece and brought it home. When he awoke next 
morning the little piece had changed into O-let'-fe, 
the Coyote-man, who was already living in a little 
house of his own on top of the mountain. O-let'-te 
told Wek'-wek that he was his grandfather. 

Wek'-wek told Mol'-luk his father and added, 
"Now I've got my grandfather." 

71 



Zf)t Baton of tf)t ?Miorlb 



Mol'-luk replied, "Ask him what you want to 
know; he knows everything." 

So Wek'-wek asked O-let'-te, " How are we go- 
ing to get the elderberry music?" 

^^Ho-ho" answered O-let'-te, "that is very diffi- 
cult ; you might have bad luck and might be killed." 

But Wek'-wek continued, " I want it." 

Then the wise O-let'-te said: "All right, go and 
buy it, but mind what I tell you or you will be 
killed. You will find the Star-women pleasant and 
pretty. They will want you to stay and play with 
them. If you do so, you will die. Go and do as I 
tell you." 

So Wek'-wek went. He flew fast and far -far 
away to the east, to the place where the Sun gets 
up. There he found Hul-luk mi-yum'-ko the Star- 
women and lah'-pah the elderberry tree. The Star- 
women were people of importance ; both were 
chiefs. Wek'-wek had taken with him long strings 
of haw'-wut, the shell money, which as he flew 
streamed out behind. This he gave them for the 
elderberry music. The Star-women liked the haw'- 
wut and accepted it and led Wek'wek to the elder- 
berry tree and told him to break off a little piece 
and take it home and he would have all. But when 
he reached the tree the rattlesnakes stood up all 
around and hissed at him to frighten him, for he 
was a stranger. The Star-women told him not to 
be afraid, they would drive the snakes away. So 
they scolded the snakes and sent them down into 

72 



lantient Mvtf^si 



their holes. Then Wek'-wek took his soo'-pe [dig- 
ging stick] and pried ofif a piece of the tree. The 
Star-women began to play with him and wanted 
him to stay with them, but remembering what 
O-let'-te his grandfather had told him, he paid no 
attention to them but took the piece of elderberry 
tree and carried it swiftly home to Oo-yum-bel'le. 
When he arrived he said to O-let'-te, " Grand- 
father, I've brought the music-tree ; what shall we 
do with it so we can have the music?" 

O-let'-te laughed as he replied, " Do you really 
think you have it?" 

"Yes," answered Wek'-wek, "here it is." 
Then O-let'-te said, "We must put it in the 
ground over all the country to furnish music for 
the Mew'-ko [Indian people] we are going to 
make, for pretty soon we shall begin to make the 
people." 

Wek'-wek answered "Yes," but thought he would 
wait and see who was the smarter, himself or 
O-let'-te - for he felt very proud because he had 
brought the music tree. 

Then they went out and traveled over all the 
country and planted the elderberry tree so that by 
and by it would furnish music and food and medi- 
cine for the Indian people they were going to make. 
O-let'-te told Wek'-wek that the berries would 
make food, the roots and blossoms medicine, and 
the hollow branches music. 



73 



lle'lofe anb Ijis; ?|an=na=tJoo 

WHEN Wek'-wek and O-let'-te were out 
hunting one day they went to Tah-lah'- 
wit the North and came to a rocky hill 
where they saw a great and powerful giant named 
Ke'-lok, sitting by his han-nd'-boo or roundhouse. 
Wek'-wek flew close to him and saw him well. 

That night, when they had gone home, Wek'-wek 
said to O-let'-te, " Grandfather, I want to play 
al'-leh (the hand-game) with. Ke'-lok.'" ^'^ 

When O-let'-te heard Wek'-wek say he wanted 
to play al'-leh with Ke'-lok he laughed and said, 
"You! play hand-game with the Giant Ke'-lokV 

"Yes," answered Wek'-wek, "I want to play 
hand-game with Ke'-lok.'''' 

Then his grandfather told him that Ke'-lok was 
his elder brother. 

"All right," said Wek'-wek, " I'm going to play 
al'-leh with my brother." 

After a while Wek'-wek arrived at Ke'-lok's han- 
nd'-boo, and when Ke'-lok came out, said to him, 
" Brother, I have come to play hand-game with 
you." 

11 Nowadays al'-leh is a guessing game, played with two small 
bones, one wrapped or 'dressed' to distinguish it from the other. But in 
those days it was different, for al'-leh was played by hurling rocks with 
intent to kill. 

75 



tE^fje Baton of tfje OTorlb 



"All right," answered Ke'-lok, and he at once 
built a fire and put eight round rocks in it and 
heated them until they were red hot. Then he 
said, " My young brother, you begin first." 

"No," replied Wek'-wek, "I want to see you 
play first; you begin." 

"All right," said Ke'-lok, and he immediately 
sprang up and darted up into the sky, for he was 
great and powerful and could do all things. As he 
went up he made a loud noise. Then he came down 
in a zig-zag course, and as he came, sang a song. 

Then PVek'-wek began to throw hot rocks at him 
but purposely missed him, for he did not want to 
kill his brother. His grandfather O-let'-te the 
Coyote-man, called out to him from the south that 
if he hit Ke'-lok in his body it would not kill him, 
but that his heart {wus'-ke) was in his arm, under 
a white spot on the underside of the arm, and that 
"if he hit that spot it would kill him; that was the 
only place on his body where a blow would kill 
him. 

Wek'-wek answered, " I can easily hit that, but 
I don't want to kill him." 

So he threw all the hot stones but took care not 
to hit the white spot under the arm. When he had 
fired all the rocks he picked them up and put them 
back in the fire to heat again. 

Then it was Ke'-lok's turn. 

When Ke'-lok was ready, Wek'-avek said, "All 
right, I will go now," and he shot up into the sky, 

76 




The Giant K/-lok hurlina; hot Rocks at ll'ck'-ivck 



Ancient iWpttss 



making a great noise, just as Ke'-lok had done. 
Then he came down slowly, singing a song, and 
came toward Ke'-lok's roundhouse. 

Then Ke'-lok began to throw the hot rocks at 
him and tried hard to hit him. But Wek'-wek 
dodged them easily and called out to O-let'-te his 
grandfather: "He can't hit me unless I let him; 
see me let him hit me" -for he thought he would 
not really be killed, believing that the magic of 
O-let'-te would keep him alive. So he let Ke'-lok 
hit him with the last rock. 

Ke'-lok did hit him and he fell dead. Then 
Ke'-lok picked him up and hung him on his ha-nd'- 
boo. 

Ke'-lok's place was at Tah-lah'-wtt, the north. 
When Wek'-wek set out to go there, his grandfather 
O-let'-te had told him to pluck out and take with him 
one of his father's long wing-feathers and stand it 
up on top of Ke'-lok's han-nd'-boo so it could be 
seen a long way ofif. O-let'-te said the feather 
would stand so long as Wek'wek was alive, but if 
he was killed it would fall. While the hand-game 
was going on O-let'-te watched the feather, and 
when Wek'-wek was hit he saw it fall. Then he 
felt very sad and cried and told Mol'-luk, Wek'- 
wek's father, and they both mourned and cried. 

Then O-let'-te said to Mol'-luk, " I'm going to 
play hand-game with Ke'-lok." So he took a long 
walking stick with a sharp point at one end and 
set out on the far journey to Tah-lah'-wit. When 

79 



W\)t Baton of tfje WBovlh 



he arrived at Ke'lok's han-nd'-boo he said, "Well, 
how are you getting along?" 

Ke'-lok answered, " I'm getting along all right." 

Then O-lef-te said, " I have come to play hand- 
game." 

"All right," replied Ke'-lok; and he built a fire 
and heated the rocks red hot, just as he had done 
before. When the rocks were hot he asked, "Who 
will play first?" 

O-let'-te answered, " I'm an old man, but I'll go 
first." So he shot up into the sky with a great noise, 
just as Ke'-lok and Wek'-wek had done before; and 
then circled around and came down slowly, singing 
a song of his own -different from the songs the 
others had sung. 

Then Ke'-lok began picking up the hot rocks and 
throwing them at him. But O-let'-te^ in spite of 
his age, was very agile and dodged all of the eight 
rocks so that not one hit him. 

When Ke'-lok had fired all the rocks he said to 
himself, "Maybe my grandfather will beat me 
after all; I feel now that I am done for," and he 
was afraid. 

O-let'-te^ who was still in the air, then came 
down and said, " I'm old and tired of playing that 
way. Do you think old people can beat young 
people? I don't know, but I'll try anyhow." 

It was now Ke'-lok's turn to go up and O-let'-te' s 
turn to throw the hot rocks. Ke'-lok sprang up in 
the same way as before, and came down in the same 

80 



Ancient iWpttsi 



way, singing his own song. O-let'-te picked up the 
hot stones and threw them at Ke'-lok, one after the 
other, until he had thrown four, but did not try 
to hit him. He then looked toward Ke'-lok's han- 
na-boo and saw Wek'-wek hanging there, and was 
very angry. When he picked up the fifth stone he 
said, " Now I am going to hit the white spot on his 
arm, over his heart," and he fired the rock straight 
and hit the white spot, and Ke'-lok fell dead. 

As soon as Ke'-lok was dead his fire sprang up 
and began to burn and spread. Then O-let'-te 
went to Wek'-wek and took him in his hands. 
Wek'-wek's feathers moved a little; then his head 
drew in a little ; then his eyes opened and he stood 
up and came to life and exclaimed, "The country 
is burning!" 

And so it was, for the fire was now sweeping 
fiercely over the land, spreading swiftly to the east 
and west and south, roaring with a mighty roar, 
consuming everything in its way and filling the air 
with flame and smoke. 

O-let'-te directed Wek'-wek to fly quickly to the 
ocean and dive under the water, where he had two 
sisters named Hoo-soo'-pe^^ (the Mermaids), and 
stay with them while the world was burning. So 
Wek'-wek went into the ocean and found his sisters 
and remained with them until the fire had burnt 
over all the land and had burnt itself out. While 
with them he killed a great many ducks. His 

12 See the story of Ho-hd'-pe, page 238. 

81 



Cl)c Baton of tfte iJEorlb 



sisters did not like him to kill ducks, so after they 
had spoken to him he killed only what he needed 
to eat. 



82 



Wbt Creation of iWan 

A FTER a while the world cooled off and 
/\ JVek'-'wek came back to Oo'-yum-beV- 
£ \./e (Mount Diablo) to see his father MoV- 
luk and his grandfather 0-let'te. He said to MoV- 
luk, "O father;" and Mol'-luk answered, " What is 
it my son?" 

Wek'-wek asked, " How can we make Mew'-ko 
(Indian people) and have them in the country?" 

His father replied, " I cannot tell you; ask your 
grandfather, he can tell you." 

So Wek'-wek asked his grandfather, O-let'-te, 
how they were going to make people. 

O-let'-te answered, "Hah-hah, it will take you 
a good while to do that. If you are going to do 
that you must have a head. If people are coming 
you must first put out [provide] everything every- 
where so they can live. If you want to do this I 
will think about it." 

" I want to see it done," answered Wek'-wek. 

"All right," said O-let'-te, "I know how. I 
must catch the three birds- Choo'-hoo the Turkey 
Buzzard, Kok'-kol the Raven, and Ah-wet'-che the 
Crow. The only way to catch these birds is to 
make-believe dead." 

So Wek'-wek and O-let'-te went out on the plain 

83 



^\it Baton of tfje OTiorlb 



together and O-let'-te lay down on the ground and 
pretended he was dead. He opened his mouth and 
let his tongue out and relaxed himself so Choo'-hoo 
the Buzzard would think he was dead. He told 
Wek'-wek he would call if he caught the birds ; and 
Wek'-wek went away. 

Soon Choo'-hoo the Turkey Buzzard came sail- 
ing over and saw the dead Coyote-man and circled 
around and lit on the ground beside him. Kok'-kol 
the Raven and Ah-wet'-che the Crow saw Choo'- 
hoo go down and knew that he had found some- 
thing to eat, so they too hastened to the place. Just 
as all three began to eat, O-let'-te suddenly sprang 
up and caught them. He then called Wek'-wek 
to come, and told him to pick off the feathers and 
be careful not to lose a single one. This Wek'-wek 
did; he picked all the feathers from the three birds 
and took them all home. 

Then he asked his grandfather, "What are we 
going to do next?" 

" Make people," answered O-let'-te. 

"All right," said Wek'-wek, "do you know how?" 

"Yes," answered O-let'-te. 

Wek'-wek then told Mol'-luk his father that 
they were going to make people. Mol'-luk answer- 
ed, "All right." 

Next morning O-let'-te and Wek'-wek took the 
feathers and traveled over all the country. They 
picked out the places where they wanted Indian 
villages to be, and in each place stuck up three 

84 



Missing Page 



Missing Page 



Ancient iHptfjs; 



feathers -one for Cha-kah the Chief, one for 
Mi'-yum, the head woman or Woman Chief, and 
one for Soo-ld-too the poor. And they gave each 
place its name -the name it has always had and 
bears today. 

The next morning the three feathers at each 
place stood up and came to life and became Mew'- 
ko [Indian People]. This is the way people were 
made in the beginning and this is the way all the 
different rancherias or villages were named. 

After that O-let'-te said to Wek'-wek, "Now we 
also are going to change; I am going to be a hunt- 
ing animal and you are going to be a hunting bird." 
So O-let'-te the Coyote-man, whose form up to this 
time we do not know, changed to the Coyote, a 
furry hunting animal and became the first furry 
animal. And Wek'-wek changed to the Falcon, a 
hunting bird. 



87 



Ilotu tfjep got tfje Jf ire 

THE first fire was made by the Doctor Birds 
at the birth of Wek'-wek. The next fire was 
made by Ke'-lok the North Giant. After 
Ke'-lok's death and after his fire had burnt up the 
world and had burnt itself out, there was no fire 
except that of the Hul-luk mi-yum'-ko, the Star- 
women, which was close by the elderberry tree, 
way off in the east where the Sun gets up. 

O-let'-te said to his grandson, Wek'-wek : " Now 
we have people, and elderberry music for the peo- 
ple, but we have no fire for them to cook with ; the 
Star- women have it; we must steal it." 

"How?" asked Wek'-wek. 

" Send Koo-loo'-loo the Humming-bird; he is 
faster than you. Tell him to catch a little spark 
and bring it quickly," replied O-let'-te. 

"All right," answered Wek'-wek, and he sent 
Koo-loo'-loo to fetch the fire. Koo-loo'-loo shot 
out swiftly and soon reached the Star-women by 
the elderberry tree in the far east, in the place 
where the Sun gets up. Here he hid and watched 
and waited, and when he saw a little spark of fire, 
he darted in and seized it and brought it back 
quickly to Wek'-wek and O-let'-te. He held it 
tight under his chin, and to this day if you look 

89 



tKJje ©aton of tfje WBovlH 



under the Humming-bird's chin you will see the 
mark of the fire. 

Then Wek'-wek asked: "Where shall we put 
it?" 

O-let'-te answered, " Let us put it in oo'-noo, the 
buckeye tree, where all the people can get it." So 
they put it in oo'-noo, the buckeye tree, and even 
now whenever an Indian wants fire he goes to the 
oo'-noo tree and gets it. 

Fragment of a Hoo'-koo-e'-ko Version 

I have discovered fragments of a similar myth 
among the nearly extinct Hoo'-koo-e'-ko north of 
San Francisco Bay. These people state that O'-ye 
the Coyote-man sent Koo-loo'-pis the Humming- 
bird far away to the east to steal the fire; that he 
brought it back to Coyote-man, and that Coyote- 
man put it into the buckeye tree. They state also 
that Wek'-wek once went a long way ofif and was 
killed, and that his grandfather, O'-ye the Coyote- 
man, went after him and restored him to life. 



90 



How Kah'-kool the Raven became a Great 
Hunter 

A Tale of the Southern Mewuk 
As told by the Mariposa Mewuk 

Personages 
Too'-le the Evening Star, a Chief of the First People 
He-le'-jah the Cougar or Mountain Lion, another Chief, 
and partner of Too'-le 

Kah'-kool the Raven, who became a great hunter 
To-lo'-mah the Bobcat 
Yu- wel the Gray Fox 



92 



?|ohj i^aj)=feool tfje i^aben became 
a <§reat ||unter 

A LONG time ago Too'-le the Evening Star 
/ \ lived at Oo'-tin [Bower Cave, on the Coul- 
A Vterville road to Yosemite]. He-le'-jah the 
Mountain Lion lived with him. They were chiefs 
and partners and had a room on the north side of 
the cave. There were other people here also- 
To-lo'-mah the Wild Cat, Yu'-wel the Gray Fox, 
Kah'-kool the Raven, and many more. 

They used to send out hunters for meat. One of 
these, Kah'-kool the Raven, complained to Too'-le 
and He-le'-jah that he could not come near enough 
the game to shoot; the animals saw him too easily- 
he was too light colored. So he decided to make 
himself black; he took some charcoal and mashed 
it in a basket and rubbed it all over his body wher- 
ever he could reach, and had the others help put 
it on his back where he could not reach. When 
he was black all over he went hunting and killed 
two or three animals the first day, for now they 
could not see him. 

One day Kah'-kool went to Big Meadows and 
climbed on top of Pile Peak, and when the moon 
rose, he saw away in the east two big things like 
ears standing up. He had never seen anything like 

93 



Cfie Baton of tfje ?E2HorUi 



them before and ran back to Oo'-tin and told the 
Chiefs. He said the animal must be very big and 
very wild, for it turned its big ears every way. He 
wanted to see it. 

Every evening he went back to the peak and saw 
the ears in the east, and each time they were a little 
nearer. But he did not yet know what the animal 
was. Then he went again and this time the ears 
were only two or three miles away, and he ran 
back quickly and told the Chiefs that the new ani- 
mals were coming. They were Deer coming over 
the mountains from the east; they had never been 
here before. 

The next morning Kah'-kool went out and for 
the first time in his life saw a bunch of Deer; but 
he did not know what they were. He saw that they 
stepped quickly, and that some of them had horns. 
So he ran back and told Too'-le and He-le'-jah 
what he had seen, and said that the new animals 
looked good to eat and he wanted to kill me. 

"All right," answered the Chiefs, " If you see one 
on our side" go ahead and kill him." 

So the next morning Kah'-kool again went out 
and saw that the animals had come much nearer 
and were pretty close. He hid behind a tree and 
they came still nearer. He picked out a big one 
and shot his arrow into it and killed it, for he want- 

13 Meaning "on our side" of the tribal boundary line. This line 
now separates the territory of the Middle Mewuk from that of the 
Mono Lake Piutes. 

94 





'^^Ji^^^^^^l 






■|--'',^^H 


I^^^^^^^^^^K '^>. -• Jffifc 




■^•M-'-^l^l 


■MK: 




.jr«^BK^H 


^KS^ 


:i^>:'. 


v^ft vf^^^^^H 


wpk. 






Hi^</ '■■.•' 




^ 


J^--:^ 




- Si^sBbHiHi^^l^^^^^l 




gg»J!«iL,m --I 


^^^^^^^^^ 


■>':'^^B 



Ancient iWptijfli 



ed to try the meat. He watched it kick and roll 
over and die, and then went back and told the 
Chiefs that he had killed one and wanted two men 
to go with him and fetch it. The Chiefs sent two 
men with him, but when they got there they had 
nothing to cut it with and had to carry it home 
whole. One took it by the front feet, the other by 
the hind feet; they carried it to the cave and showed 
it to the Chiefs. 

He-le'-jah said it was a Deer and was good to eat, 
and told the people to skin it. They did so and 
ate it all at one meal. 

Next morning Kah'-kool returned alone to the 
same place and followed the tracks and soon found 
the Deer. He hid behind a tree and shot one. The 
others ran, but he shot his arrows so quickly that 
they made only a few jumps before he had killed 
five -enough for all the people. He did not want 
to kill all ; he wanted to leave some bucks and does 
so there would be more. 

This time the Chiefs sent five men with Kah'- 
kool. They took flint knives and skinned the Deer 
and carried home all the meat and intestines for 
supper and breakfast. 

Chief Too'-le the Evening Star told Kah'-kool 
that he wanted to see how the Deer walked, and 
would hunt with him. Kah'-kool replied that he 
was too light- too shiny- and would scare the Deer. 
Too'-le said he would hide behind a tree and not 
show himself. So he went, and Kah'-kool kept him 

97 



trtje Baton of tfje Wiovlh 



behind. But he was so bright that the Deer saw 
him and ran away. Too'-le said, "What am I go- 
ing to do?" Kah'-kool made no answer; he was 
angry because he had to go home without any meat. 

Next morning Too'-le went again. He said he 
was smart and knew what he would do. The Deer 
had now made a trail. Too'-le dug a hole by the 
trail and covered himself up with leaves and 
thought that when the Deer came he would catch 
one by the foot. But when the Deer came they saw 
his eye shine and ran away. 

The next morning he tried again. He said that 
this time he would bury himself eye and all, and 
catch a Deer by the foot. Kah'-kool answered, 
"You can't catch one that way, you will have to 
shoot him." But Too'-le dug a hole in another 
place in the trail and covered himself all up, eye 
and all, except the tips of his fingers. The Deer 
came and saw the tips of his fingers shine and ran 
away. So again the hunters had to go back with- 
out any meat. 

Then Too'-le the Evening Star said, " I'm going 
to black myself with charcoal, the same as Kah'- 
kool did." He tried, but the charcoal would not 
stick -he was too bright. He said, " I don't know 
what to do ; I want to kill one or two Deer." Then 
he tried again and mashed more charcoal and put 
it on thick. The others helped him and finally 
made him black all over. Too'-le did not know 
that the Deer could smell him, and again hid on 



Ancient iWptfjs! 



the trail. The Deer came again. This time the 
doe was ahead, the buck behind. The leader, the 
doe, smelled him and jumped over him; the buck 
smelled him and ran back. So this time also Too'- 
le and Kah'-kool had to go home without meat. 

The next morning Too'-le tried once more. He 
had two men blacken him all over. Then he went 
to the trail and stood still between two trees. But 
the Deer smelled him and swung around and ran 
away and went down west to the low country. This 
discouraged him so that he did not know what to 
do, and he gave up hunting and stayed at home. 

Then Kah'-kool began to hunt again; he went 
every morning alone and killed five or ten Deer. 
The people ate the meat and intestines and all, but 
did not have enough. Then Kah'-kool worked 
harder; he started very early in the morning, before 
daylight, and killed twelve to fifteen Deer every 
day. This was too much for him and before long 
he took sick and could not hunt at all. 

Then the Chiefs and all the others had nothing 
to eat and did not know what to do. Too'-le asked 
He-le'-jah, and He-le'-jah asked Too'-le, what they 
should do. He-le'-jah said he would stay and kill 
his own Deer and eat the liver only -not the meat- 
and would eat it raw. Too'-le said he would go up 
into the sky and stay there and become the Evening 
Star. And each did as he had said. So the ranch- 
eria at Oo'-tin was broken up. 



99 



How Kah'-kah-loo the Ravens became People 

Fragment of a Tale of the Northern Mewuk 



Personages 
Kah'-kah-loo the Ravens 
Me'-wuk the People 



KXJ 



became J^eople 

WHEN water covered the world only the 
top of the highest mountain rose above 
it. The people had climbed up on this 
mountain, but could find no food and were starv- 
ing. They wanted to go off and get something to 
eat. When the water went down all the ground 
was soft mud. After a while the people rolled 
rocks down to see if the mud were hard enough to 
hold them. When the rocks stayed on top, the 
people went down to search for food. 

But the mud was not hard enough to hold them 
and they sank out of sight, leaving deep holes 
where they had gone down. Then Kah'-kah-loo 
the Ravens came and stood at the holes, one at each 
hole where a man had gone down. After a while, 
when the ground hardened, the Ravens turned into 
people. That is the reason the Mewuk are so dark. 



101 



The Bear and the Fawns 

As told by the Northern Mewuk in the Mokelumne River 
foothilk 

Personages 
Oo-soo'-ma-te the Grizzly Bear-woman 
O-woo'-yah the Mother Deer 



102 



Wt\t peat anb tje jFatons^ 

OO-SOO'-iMA-TE the Grizzly Bear had a 
sister-in-law whose name was O-woo'-yah 
the Deer. Oo-soo'-ma-te took her to a 
place in the woods to show her a good kind of 
clover. When they found it O-woo'-yah began to 
scratch her head. Oo-soo'-ma-te said, "Let me 
look in your head," and seized her by the neck and 
killed her, and took her liver out and put it in a 
basket and carried it home. 

O-woo'-yah the Deer was the mother of two little 
fawns, brothers, and Oo-soo'-ma-te was the mother 
of a little boy- a little bear cub. 

When Oo-soo'-ma-te came home with the liver 
in her basket the little fawns asked, "Aunt, where 
is our mother?" 

The Bear replied, " She is out gathering clover." 

After a little they asked, "Why doesn't mother 
come home? " Then they saw the liver in the bas- 
ket and smelled it and knew it was their mother's 
liver. Then they began to cry and say, " Our 
mother is dead, our mother is dead." 

Old Oo-soo'-ma-te was outside pounding acorns. 
The little fawns went out and asked if they might 
take her baby and play with it. 

She answered, "All right, but don't hurt him." 

103 



tlDfie laabin ot t^t Wiovlti 



So they took the baby bear out in the woods to 
play, and went to the side of a hill and dug a hole. 
They said to the cub, "We will go in first and you 
close the hole and smoke us, and when we call, 
you let us out. Then you go in and we will smoke 
you." 

So they went in first and the baby bear closed 
the hole and made smoke go in, and when the 
smoke was thick the fawns called to be let out, and 
the cub let them out. Then the cub went in and the 
fawns closed the hole and made smoke go in. The 
cub said, "When I call, you let me out," and the 
fawns answered, "All right." But when the bear 
cub called to be let out the fawns poked more 
leaves and pine needles into the hole and made 
more smoke, and the little bear kept crying till 
he died. After he was dead they took him out. 

Then they said, "What shall we do? What shall 
we tell our Aunt?" 

Just then Oo-soo'-ma-te, who was still pound- 
ing acorns, called them to come home. 

The fawns laid the baby bear on the ground 
near the house so their Aunt could see it, and told 
her it was asleep and they were going to play 
again. 

She answered, "Don't go far, your mother will 
be here pretty soon." 

The little brothers then ran off to the south as 
fast as they could go, so Oo-soo'-ma-te could not 
find them. Every time they passed a tree on the 

104 



o 



c: 




i^mient iWpttsf 



trail they peeled a little bark off and spat on the 
place and told it to call out when Oo-soo'-ma-te 
came looking for them. This they did to all the 
trees till they came to a big river with a high hill 
on the far side; then they crossed the river and 
climbed up the hill. 

Soon the trees began to shout and the fawns knew 
that Oo-soo'-ma-te was coming, and after a while 
they saw her coming. She saw them on the far 
side of the river and asked how they had crossed. 
They told her to turn her head the other way and 
walk backward. Then they quickly made a hot 
fire and heated two big rocks with hard white 
chunks in them. 

When Oo-soo'-ma-te was nearly across the riv- 
er the older fawn went to the edge of the water 
and knelt down, and the younger one rolled a hot 
rock, which just missed his brother's knee. The 
older one then ran up to the fire and said, " Let 
me do that and you kneel down." And he took 
the other big hot rock, and rolled it down the hill. It 
grazed his brother's knee a little and then hit the 
old bear and she fell back in the river and was 
drowned. 

Then the fawns began to wonder what they had 
better do. First they dragged the old bear out of 
the water and cut her hide on the back and made 
a long rope of it and took the rope with them. Then 
the younger one asked, "Where are we going now? 
Up east?" 

107 



tlTfje IBatain of tfje OTorlb 



"No," answered the elder one. 

"Where then, going north?" 

"No." 

"Going west?" 

"No." 

"Where then, south?" 

"No." 

"Then where are we going, up in the sky?" 
asked the little one. 

"No," replied the other. 

"Are we going under the earth?" 

"Yes," said the elder brother. 

Then the younger one said, "You don't know 
where we are going; ask me." And the elder 
brother asked the younger, "Are we going north?" 

"No," was the reply. 

"West?" 

"No." 

"South?" 

"No." 

"Where then, under the earth?" 

"No." 

"Where do you want to go -up in the sky?" 

"Yes," answered the younger; so they went up in 
the sky and there they found their mother. 

She was glad to see her boys. They said, "We 
are thirsty; where is the water?" She answered, 
"I have no water here, I'll go to the spring to 
get it." And she went to the spring and fell in 
and was drowned. Then the brothers let them- 

108 



^ancient Mv^^ 



selves down with the rope they had made from the 
hide of the Mother Bear, and came back to this 
world. If their mother had not drowned, the fawns 
would have stayed up there and there would be no 
deer here on the earth. 



1()9 



The Bear and the Fawns 

Outline of Story sung by the Middle Mewuk in the 
Mountains on Tuolumne River 



Personages 
Oo-soo'-ma-te the Grizzly Bear-woman 
Ut-too'-yah the Mother Deer 
He-le'-jah the Cougar or Mountain Lion-man 
Te-wi'-yu the Red-shafted Flicker-man 



110 



Wi^t peat anb tfje Jf atDttsi 

A story sung by the Middle Mewuk 

OO-SOO'-MA-TE the Grizzly Bear killed 
Ut-too'-yah the Mother Deer. Oo-soo'-ma- 
te killed her and He-le'-jah the Mountain 
Lion ate her. The Mother Deer had two little 
fawns. They missed their mother and asked Oo- 
soo'-ma-te where she was. Oo-soo'-ma-te an- 
swered, "She is resting," and pointing to the house 
said, "Go in there where you will be safe till she 
comes back." 

They went in, singing for their mother to come 
back, for they were starving. When they were in- 
side, Oo-soo'-ma-te closed the door so they could 
not get out. 

Then the fawns felt sure that Oo-soo'-ma-te had 
killed their mother and was intending to kill them. 
So they fastened the door of the Bear's house on 
the inside so she could not get in. Then a kind 
one-Te-wi'-yu the Red-shafted Flicker -brought 
them fire and they put it in the middle of the 
house and put on a number of rocks to heat. 

When Oo-soo'-ma-te came home she was unable 
to get in and called to the fawns, saying, "I want 
to come in; where is the door?" 

They answered, "Try the west side." 

Ill 



tlTfje Baton ot tfje laiorlb 



She tried, but could not find any door. 

Then they called to her to try the north side, and 
she did so, but could not find it. 

Then they told her to try the east side, and she 
did, with no better success ; then the south side, with 
the same result. 

This made Oo-soo'-ma-te very angry and she 
shouted, " If you don't open the door and let me in 
I'll come and eat you." 

Then they told her to climb up on top and come 
in through the smoke hole, and to back down or 
she would fall and break her neck. 

So she climbed up on top and began to back 
down through the smoke hole. But by this time 
the rocks were hot, and while she was trying to 
squeeze through the hole the fawns took the hot 
rocks and burned her to death. 



112 



How THE Children of He-le'-jah became 
People 

Fragment of Creation Story of the Northern Mewuk 
As told at Wal'-le and Hd'-cha-nah 



Personages 
He-le'-jah the Cougar or Mountain Lion-man 
Oo-soo'-ma-te the Grizzly Bear-woman, wife of He-le'-jah 
Paht'-ki-yu the Raccoon-woman, another wife of He-le'-jah 
Pe-td'-le the Little Lizard-man, who gave the people five 
fingers 



114 



5|oU) tfje Cf)ilbren of ?|e4e=jaf) 
became people 

HE-LE'-JAH the Cougar or Mountain Lion 
had two wives, Oo-soo'-ma-te the Grizzly 
Bear-woman and Paht'-ki-yu the Raccoon- 
woman. Their children looked a little like people 
but still were not people. Every year there were 
more children, and as they grew up and had chil- 
dren of their own, the children came to look more 
and more like people, only they had no fingers. 
Then Pe-td'-le the Lizard gave them five fingers 
and they became real people (Me'wuk). 



lis 



The Greed of His'-sik the Skunk 

A Tale of the Southern Mewuk 
As told by the Mariposa Mewuk 
His'-sik the Skunk was Chief of a village or rancheria of 
the Foothills People at a place in the lower hills of Mariposa 
County nearly midway between Indian Gulch and Hornitos. 

Personages 
His'-sik the Skunk, a greedy chief of the Foothills People 
Yu'-wel the Gray Fox, a hunter who married His'-sik's 
daughter 

So'-koi the Elk 

Too'-ivik the Badger, who outwitted His'-sik 



116 



Wi)t #reeb of ?|i£(=s;ik tfte ^feunk 

HIS'-SIK the Skunk had a wife, and by and 
by a daughter, who, when she grew up, 
married Yu'-wel the Gray Fox. Yu'-wel 
was a good hunter and he and His'-sik often hunted 
together. 

Not far from His'-sik's place were two high hills 
standing side by side. In the narrow gap between 
them ran the trail of So'-koi the Elk. One day 
His'-sik told Yu'-wel to hide in this narrow place 
while he went down to the plain to drive up the 
elk. So Yu'-wel hid there and His'-sik went down 
near the elk and fired his terrible scent. The elk 
could not stand the smell and ran up the trail. 
Yu'-wel waited until the leader and all the others 
had passed up between the hills, and when the last 
one had gone by he stepped behind him and fired 
his arrow with such force that it shot through the 
whole band, killing them all. 

When His'-sik came he was so glad that he 
danced. He called all the people to come and help 
carry the meat home; and then said to Yu'-wel: 
"You must pack one elk and pack me too, for I am 
too tired to walk." 

Yu'-wel was afraid of His'-sik and so did as he 
was told. He lifted a big elk on his shoulders, 

117 



tE^fje ©atun of tfje ?i!2lorlb 

and His'-sik climbed up on top, and while they 
were on the way danced all the time on the body of 
the elk, and Yu'-wel carried them both to the vil- 
lage. 

Then His'-sik told the people to skin the elk, 
and promised them some of the meat. They 
skinned the elk and cut the meat in strips and hung 
it up to dry. When they had done this they asked 
him for their share. He refused to give them any 
but told them that they might eat acorn mush and 
pinole. He then turned as if he were going to 
shoot his scent, and everyone was afraid. 

His'-sik was so greedy that he would not give 
any of the meat to anyone -not even to his own 
wife and daughter, nor to his son-in-law who killed 
it- but put it all away to dry for himself. 

The next day he told Yu'-wel to hunt again, and 
they did the same as before; and when the elk 
were in the narrow pass between the hills Yu'-wel 
shot his arrow and killed the whole bunch, as 
before. 

Then His'-sik called the people to come and 
carry the elk home, and made Yu'-wel carry one, 
and he danced on top on the way, as before. 

Again he told the people to skin the elk and he 
would give them meat for supper; but when they 
had skinned the elk and cut up the meat he told 
them to eat acorns and pinole, at the same time 
turning to frighten them, and took all the meat to 
dry for himself, just as he had done before. 

118 



^ntient iW|>tf)£{ 



The people were very angry, but were afraid to 
do anything for fear His'-sik would shoot his scent 
and kill them. They talked the matter over for a 
long time and finally a wise man said: "What are 
we going to do? Must we hunt for him and pack 
his meat and skin it for him always, and not get 
any? We had better kill him, but how can we do 
it so he will not shoot his scent and kill us?" 

Then Too'-wik the Badger spoke. He said, "We 
can kill him." And while His'-sik was watching 
his meat so no one could take any of it, Too'-wik 
dug a big hole, ten or fifteen feet deep, and built 
a fire in it. 

Someone asked him why he made the fire. Too'- 
wik replied, " Do you not know that His'-sik is a 
great dancer and loves to dance? We will have fire 
in the hole, and cover the top over with sticks and 
leaves and earth so he can't see anything, and send 
for him to come and dance, and when he dances 
he will break through and fall in and we shall 
kill him." 

The people answered, "All right." 

When it was dark they sent a messenger to His'- 
sik. He said, "You are a great dancer; we want 
a dance tonight and will pay you well if you will 
come." 

His'-sik was pleased and answered, "All right, 
where shall I dance?" 

They took him to the place and pointing to it 
said, "Right here." 

119 



Wf)t Baton of tte WBoxUi 



His'-sik began to dance and sing, and everyone 
said, "Good, you are doing well; keep on, you 
are doing finely; go ahead, you surely are a great 
dancer." And they flattered him and he kept on 
and danced harder and harder, for he was proud 
and wanted to show what he could do. 

After a while, when he was dancing hardest, 
the sticks broke and he fell into the hole. The 
people were ready. They had a big rock, a very 
big rock, which it had taken many people to bring. 
They were waiting, and the moment he fell in they 
pushed the rock quickly over the hole and held it 
down ; they all climbed up on it and held it down 
tight so he could not get out. 

The hot coals burnt his feet and made him dance. 
He was very angry and shot his scent so hard 
against the side of the hole that he pushed moun- 
tains up on that side; then he turned the other way 
and shot again and pushed mountains up on that 
side too. After this his scent was gone and the 
coals burnt him and killed him. Then all the 
people were happy. 

The next day the people had a great feast and 
ate all the dried meat they wanted. 



120 



Nek'-na-ka'-tah the Rock Maiden 

A Tale of the Northern Mewuk 
As told at IVal'-le near the Canyon of Mokelumne River 

Personages 
Nek'-na-kd'-tah the Rock Maiden 
Oo-soo'-ma-te the Grizzly Bear 



122 



i5efe=na4a=taf) tfie l^cfe iWaiben 

IN the mountains among the rocks by the river 
lives Nek'-na-ka-tah, the little rock girl. She 
is herself a rock and always lives in rocky 
places by the river. In some way she produces or 
gives off people; these people are hard like rocks 
and you can not cut them or shoot them with an 
arrow. 

A long time ago Oo-soo'-ma-te the Grizzly 
Bear and Hoi-yah'-ko the FIRST PEOPLE, made the 
Chaw'-se or mortar holes in the big flat-topped 
rocks. Then Nek'-na-ka-tah the rock maiden came 
and helped make the Kah-wah'-che or stone pestles 
for the people to pound acorns with. 



125 



The Jealousy of Wek'-wek and the Death of 

LO'-WUT 
A Tale of the Wi'-pa Tribe 
The Wi'-pa lived on No'-yoop Island between the Sacra- 
mento and San Joaquin Rivers, east of Suisun Bay. They are 
now extinct. The last survivor, an old woman named E'-non- 
na-too-yd, to whom the author is indebted for the following 
remarkable story, died during the winter of 1908-1909. 

Personages 
O-ld'-nah the Coyote-man 

Wek'-wek the Falcon, Chief of the Bird People 
Ho'-pah the White-headed Eagle 
Lo'-wut the Gray Goose, wife of Wek'-wek 
To-to'-kol the Sandhill Crane, mother of Lo'-wut 
Soo'-choo-koo the Spoon-bill Duck 
Yu-koo'-le the Meadowlark 



126 



€f)e Jealougp of l^efe=b3ek mh tfje 
®eatf) of 1lo=tDut 

WEK'-WEK the Falcon-man was Chief 
and Captain of all the bird-people. He 
used to hunt birds for food and also used 
to catch birds alive to bring back to his han-nd'-boo 
(roundhouse) where he kept them locked up until 
he could turn them into people. O-ld'-nah the 
Coyote-man stood guard at the door of the han-nd'- 
boo. 

Wek'-wek the Falcon-man and Ho'-pah the 
White-headed Eagle-man had the power to make 
people out of birds. For this reason they were 
jealous of one another. Besides, Ho'-pah was in 
love with Wek'-wek's wife, Lo'-wut, the Gray 
Goose-woman. So Wek'-wek had cause to be jeal- 
ous. 

Once when he went out to go hunting he hid and 
watched and saw Ho'-pah and Lo'-wut together. 
This made him very angry. When he came back 
he asked Lo'-wut, his wife, " Have you anything 
ready to eat? I'm hungry." 

"Yes," she replied. 

"Bring me some water first," he said, "I'm 
thirsty; bring good water; don't get it from the 

127 



Zi)t Baton of tfje ?Miorlti 



edge of the river; go out where it is deep and get 
it there." 

Lo'-wut did as she was told and came back with 
good clear water, but when she reached the house 
with it, it had turned into snakes and frogs and 
other water animals. " Five times she went out 
into the river for water, each time with the same 
result. The last time she waded out till the water 
was above her waist. 

While she was gone, Wek'-wek went to her bed 
and fixed in it four long spear points of flint with 
the points up. When she came the fifth time with 
snakes and frogs instead of water, Wek'-wek seized 
her and threw her down on the bed and the four 
spear points pierced her body and killed her. 

To-to'-kol the Sandhill Crane-woman was Lo'- 
wut's mother; she was very angry because Wek'- 
wek had killed her daughter, and wanted to punish 
him. 

O-ld'-nah the Coyote-man and Soo'-choo-koo the 
Spoon-bill Duck came to carry Lo'-wut's dead 
body to the han-na'-boo, but when they lifted it 
they saw on the breast the black marks which 
Ho'-pah her lover had painted there. Wek'-wek 
had seen these before and knew. So O-la-nak and 
Soo'-choo-koo took the dead body and buried it. 

When Lo'-wut died she left two children, a baby 
and a little boy. Their grandmother, To-to'-kol^ 

14 Weh'-ivek made this happen, for he was a magician or witch 
doctor. 

128 



Ancient iWptijB! 



took care of them and every day sent the little boy 
with the baby to the roundhouse to be fed -and 
for four days Lo'-wut the dead mother came each 
day to the han-nd'-boo to give milk to her young 
child. 

On the fourth day Wek'-wek asked his little boy 
where he went every day with the little one. The 
boy, afraid to tell the truth, said he took the child 
to give it milk of the milkweed plant. 

Wek'-wek hid in the top of an oak tree and 
watched. He saw his dead wife Lo'-wut come to 
the roundhouse to give breast to the child; and saw 
her rise from the ground and shake the earth of 
the grave out of her hair. 

Then Wek'-wek found that he loved her still, 
although she had been unfaithful to him. So he 
went into the roundhouse and caught her in his 
arms and hugged her. 

"Let me go," she said, "You can't get me back; 
I'm not well as I used to be." 

"That doesn't make any difference," he said, "I'll 
cure you." And he took her away to his own round- 
house, where the other bird-people were. It was 
dark when they arrived. 

Yu-koo'-le the Meadowlark was there. He had 
never liked Wek'-wek's wife and had quarrelled 
with her. Now he made a great fuss and noise. 

" Hoo,^^ he said, "light a light ; I smell something 
like a dead body." 

At that very moment Wek'-wek was sitting in the 

131 



m^e ©aton of tte Wiovih 



middle of the roundhouse holding the body of his 
wife, whom he was bringing back to life. But 
when Yu-koo'-le spoke and said what he did, the 
dead woman disappeared. 

Wek'-wek was very angry. He spoke and said 
to the rest of the birds (all of whom were going 
to be people) : "This now is the way it will be 
with us all. When we die we shall die forever. 
Had it not been for Yu-koo'-le we would live again 
after the fourth day and be alive forever, the same 
as before." 

When Wek'-wek had said this he seized Yu- 
koo'-le and tore his mouth open and killed him, and 
to this day you can see under the meadowlark's 
throat the black mark where his mouth was torn 
down, and the marks on his head where the skull 
was crushed. 

Then Wek'-wek sent all the bird-people away, 
but before they went he spoke to them and said: 
"Now you will never be people but will be real 
birds; if Yu-koo'-le had not said what he did my 
wife would have lived and all of you would have 
turned into people." 

All the bird-people in the roundhouse were 
angry at what Yu-koo'-le had done. They said, 
"Were it not for Yu-koo'-le we would turn into 
people; now we must turn into animals." Then 
they came out of the roundhouse, one at a time, and 
as each came out it sang the song of the kind of bird 
it was to be, and became that kind, and went away. 

132 



The Defeat of O-la'-nah the Coyote-man 

Fragment of a Tale of the Wi'pa Tribe 



Personages 
O-ld'-nah the Coyote-man 
Wek'-wek the Falcon 
O-hul'-le the Badger, wife of O-ld'-nah 



134 



Sfje Befeat of #4a=naf) tfje 
CopotE=man 

WEK'-WEK the Falcon-man and 0-la- 
nah the Coyote-man lived a long time 
ago. 

Wek'-wek did not like O-ld'-nah because he was 
smart and always pretended that he could do every- 
thing. So one day Wek'-wek said to him, "Let's 
go and get wood; you are so smart and know so 
much and can do so many things, let's see you take 
that big oak tree and bring it home." 

O-ld'-nah answered, "All right, I can do it." 

Wek'-wek told him to go ahead and do it. 

Then O-ld'-nah ran around and around the big 
oak tree and the roots cracked and made a noise, 
and the tree shook, but it did not fall ; O-ld'-nah 
could not get it up ; he made it shake four times but 
could not make it fall. 

Wek'-wek^ who was watching from the top of 
a sycamore tree, said, "Do that again; make the 
big oak tree shake again, the same as you did before, 
you are so strong." 

O-ld'-nah tried but could not do it. 

Then Wek'-wek said: "What you said was not 
true ; you bragged that you could do everything but 

135 



tlTfje Baton of tfje Wioxlh 



you can not do any thing; now I have beaten you, 
haven't I?" 

"Yes," answered O-ld'-nah, "You have beaten 
me; I am going away." Then O-ld'-nah turned 
and howled as Coyotes howl and cried and said 
'■'■how-loo' -loQ-e, how-loo' -loo-e, how-loo' -loo-e^'' 
and turned into a real Coyote like the coyotes we 
have now. But he was angry and set upon O-huV- 
le, his wife {O-hul'-le was the Badger- woman), 
and whipped her, and she ran away. O-ld'-nah fol- 
lowed and tried to bring her back, but she refused 
and would not come. 

After Wek'-wek had beaten O-ld'-nah he had to 
get fire. So he went up the Sacramento River to 
the place where trees grow, where the creeks come 
down from the mountains, and took a piece of wood 
and made a small hole in it and sprinkled in the 
hole some dry leaves of Kutch'-um the sage-herb, 
and took a stick of Lap'-pah, the elderberry tree, 
and whirled it between his hands, with one end in 
the hole in the wood, and fire came in the dry 
Kutch'-um leaves and he had fire. 



136 



How Sah'-te set the World on Fire 

A Tale of the Tu'-le-yome Tribe 
Among the low hills about four miles south of Clear Lake 
is the site of an ancient Indian settlement named Tu'-le-yo'-me 
poQ-koot. It was the ancestral home of the Tu'-le-yo'-me or 
O'-ld-yo-me tribe, the last vanishing remnant of which is now 
located on Putah Creek a few miles east of Middletown. 

Personages 

Ol'-le the Coyote-man 

Wek'-wek the Falcon, grandson of Ol'-le 

Hoo-yu'-mah the Meadowlark 

Lah'-kah the Canada Goose 

Sah'-te the Weasel-man, who set the world on fire 

Hoo-poos'-min brothers, two small Grebes or Hell-divers 
(Podilymbus podiceps) 

We'-ke-wil'-lah brothers, two little Shrews {Sorex) who 
stole the fire 

Kah'-kah-te the Crow, whose fire was stolen by the We'-ke- 
wil'-lah brothers 



138 



i^ott) ^af)=te get tfje ^otltr on Jf ire 

yk LONG time ago, before there were any 
/ \ lndian people, Ol'-le the Coyote-man and 
jL ^his grandson, Wek'-wek the Falcon, lived 
together at Tu'-le-yo'-me. In those days Wek'-wek 
hunted Hoo-yu'-mah the Meadowlark and ate no 
other game, and Ol'-le the Coyote-man ate nothing 
at all. 

One day Wek'-wek said: "Grandfather, I want 
to see what is on the other side of Mel'-le-a-loo'- 
mah. '^ I want to see the country on the other 
side." 

"All right," answered Ol'-le. 

So the next morning Wek'-wek set out and 
crossed over the Mel'-le-a-loo'-mah hills to Coyote 
Valley, and a little farther on came to a small lake 
called Wen'-nok pol'-pol, at the south end of which 
was a pretty pointed mountain called Loo-peek'- 
pow-we. On the lake were great numbers of ducks 
and geese. Up to this time he had never killed any 
of these -he had killed only Hoo-yu'-mah the 
Meadowlark. 

He went back to Tu'-le-yo'-me, and told his 
grandfather what he had seen, and asked how he 

15 M el' -le-a-loo' -mah is the name of the hill-country south of Lower 
Lake -between Lower Lake and Coyote Valley. 

139 



Zht Baton of tJbe WBioxUi 



could get the ducks and geese. His grandfather 
answered: "A long time ago my father taught 
me how to make low'-ke the sling, and how to put 
loo'-pOQ the small stone in it, and how to aim and 
fire by swinging it around and letting fly." Then 
Ol'-le took kol the tule and made a low'-ke of it for 
Wek'-wek. The next morning Wek'-wek took the 
low'-ke and loo'-poo and went back to Wen'-nok 
pol'-pol, the little lake, and stood on top of Loo- 
peek'-pow-we the sharp-pointed mountain at the 
south end of the lake, from which he could see 
over all the valley. The flat ground at the base of 
the mountain was covered with geese of the black- 
neck kind called Lah'-kah. At the foot of the peak 
was a small flat-topped blue oak tree, the kind 
called moo-le. '^ When the geese, which were 
walking on the ground, came up to this tree, Wek'- 
wek took careful aim with his low'-ke and let fly and 
the stone flew down among them and killed more 
than two hundred, and then came back to his hand. 
He at once fired again and killed several hundred 
more. He then gathered them all and packed 
them on his head back to Tu'-le-yo'-me and gave 
them to his grandfather, Ol'-le the Coyote-man. 
Next morning when Wek'-wek was sitting on top 
of the roundhouse he saw someone coming. It was 
Sah'-te the Weasel-man, who lives under the 

16 My informant pointed out this little old tree to me and said that 
when he was a little boy his father told him that it had always been 
there, just as it was in the days of Wek'-wek. 

140 



n 

o 
o 



?3 




llntient illptijs! 



ground ; he passed on to the south without stopping. 
Wek'-wek said, "This looks like a man. Who is 
this man? Tomorrow morning I'll go and see." 
So next morning he went out again and sat on top 
of the roundhouse. Soon he saw Sah'-te com- 
ing; he came from the north and went off to the 
south. Then Wek'-wek also went south ; he went 
to the sharp peak, Loo-peek' -pow' -we, and saw 
Sah'-te pass and go still farther south. 

Wek'-wek returned to Tu'-le-yo'-me and present- 
ly saw Sah'-te come and go north again toward 
Clear Lake. Wek'-wek wanted to find out where 
Sah'-te lived, so he went up to Clear Lake and at 
the head of Sulphurbank Bay he found Sah'-te's 
lah'-mah (roundhouse). He said to himself, "Now 
I've got you," and went into Sah'-te's house. But 
Sah'-te was not at home. Wek'-wek looked around 
and saw a great quantity of hoo'-yah, the shell beads 
or money. It was in skin sacks. He took these 
sacks -ten or twelve of them -and emptied the shell 
money out on a bear skin robe and packed it on his 
head back to Tu'-le-yo'-me. But he did not take 
it in to show his grandfather; he hid it in a small 
creek near by and did not say anything about it. 

When Sah'-te came home he found that his beads 
were gone. "Who stole my beads?" he asked. 

He then took his yah'-tse [the stick the people 
used to wear crossways in a twist of their back 
hair] and stood it up in the fire, and oo'-loop the 
flame climbed it and stood on the top. He then 

143 



tEf^e Baton of tte WBiovlti 



took the yah'-tse with the flame at one end and said 
he would find out who stole his shell money. First 
he pointed it to the north, but nothing happened; 
then to the west, and nothing happened; then east; 
then up ; then down, and still nothing happened. 
Then he pointed it south toward Tu'-le-yo'-me and 
the flame leaped from the stick and spread swiftly 
down the east side of Lower Lake, burning the 
grass and brush and making a great smoke. 

In the evening Wek'-wek came out of the round- 
house at Tu'-le-yo'-me and saw the country to the 
north on fire. He went in and told his grand- 
father that something was burning on Clear Lake. 

Ol'-le the Coyote-man answered, "That's noth- 
ing; the people up there are burning tules." 

OT-le knew what Wek'-wek had done, and knew 
that Sah'-te had sent the fire, for Ol'-le was a magi- 
cian and knew everything, but he did not tell 
Wek'-ivek that he knew. 

After a while Wek'-wek came out again and 
looked at the fire and saw that it was much nearer 
and was coming on swiftly. He was afraid, and 
went back and told his grandfather that the fire 
was too near and too hot and would soon reach 
them. After a little he went out again and came 
back and said, "Grandfather, the fire is coming 
fast; it is on this side of the lake and is awfully 
hot." 

Ol'-le answered, "That's nothing; the people 
at Lower Lake are burning tules." 

144 



^ntitnt iWpti)fi 



But now the roar and heat of the fire were terri- 
ble, even inside the roundhouse, and Wek'-wek 
thought they would soon burn. He was so badly 
frightened that he told his grandfather what he 
had done. He said, "Grandfather, I stole Sah'-te's 
hoo'-yah and put it in the creek, and now I'm 
afraid we shall burn." 

Then Ol'-le took a sack and came out of the 
roundhouse and struck the sack against an oak tree, 
and fog came out. He struck the tree several times 
and each time more fog came out and spread 
around. 

Then he went back in the house and got another 
sack and beat the tree, and more fog came, and 
then rain. He said to Wek'-wek, "It is going to 
rain for ten days and ten nights." And it did 
rain, and the rain covered the whole country till 
all the land and all the hills and all the mountains 
were under water- everything except the top of 
Oo-de'-pow-we (Mount Konokti, on the west side 
of Clear Lake) which was so high that its top 
stuck out a little. 

There was no place for Wek'-wek to go and he 
flew about in the rain till he was all tired out. 
Finally he found the top of Oo-de'-pow-we and sat 
down on it and stayed there. 

On the tenth day the rain stopped, and after 
that the water began to go down and each day the 
mountain stood up higher. Wek'-wek stayed on 
the mountain about a week, by which time the 

143 



Z\)t Baton of ti)t Wiovih 



water had gone down and the land was bare again. 

In Clear Lake near Oo-de'-pow-we is an island 
which was the home of two small grebes, diving 
birds, called Hoo-poos'-min. They were brothers 
and had a roundhouse, and in the roundhouse a 
fire. Wek'-wek went there and stayed two or three 
days, and then said he was going back to Tu'-le- 
yo'-me. 

"All right," answered the Hoo-poos'-min broth- 
ers, "but don't tell OV-le that we have fire." 

"All right," answered Wek'-wek, and he went 
off to Tu'-le-yo'-me to see Ol'-le, his grandfather. 

When Wek'-wek arrived Ol'-le asked: "Who 
are you? I'm Ol'-le, and I live at Tu'-le-yo'-me." 

Wek'-wek answered, "I'm Wek'-wek and I also 
live at Tu'-le-yo'-me." 

"Oh yes," said Ol'-le, "you are Hoi'-poo (Cap- 
tain) Wek'-wek." 

"Yes," answered Wek'-wek. 

At that time there were no real people in the 
world and Wek'-wek said, "There are no people; 
I'm lonesome; what are we going to do?" 

Then Ol'-le told Wek'-wek to bring the feathers 
of the geese he had killed at Wen'-nok Lake. 
Wek'-wek did so, and they set out and traveled 
over the country. Wherever they found a good 
place for people Ol'-le took two feathers and laid 
them down side by side on the ground -two to- 
gether side by side in one place, two together side 
by side in another place, and so on in each place 

146 









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Ancient Mv^^ 



where he wanted a rancheria; and at the same time 
he gave each place its name. 

Next morning they again went out and found 
that all the feathers had turned into people; that 
each pair of feathers had become two people, a 
man and a woman, so that at each place there were 
a man and a woman. This is the way all the ranch- 
erias were started. 

By and by all the people had children and after 
a while the people became very numerous. 

Wek'-wek was pleased and said, "This is good." 
A little later he asked, "Grandfather, now that we 
have people, what are we going to do? There is 
no fire ; what can we do to get fire?" 

Ol'-le replied, " I don't know ; we shall see pretty 
soon." 

Ol'-le had a small box in his roundhouse and in 
it kept two little Shrew-mice of the kind called 
We'-ke-wil'-lah. They were brothers. Ol'-le said 
to them: ^'Kah'-kah-te the Crow has fire in his 
roundhouse, far away in the east; you go and steal 
it." 

We'-ke-wil'-lah the little Shrew-mice said they 
would try, and set out on their long journey and 
went far away to the east and finally came to Kah'- 
kah-te's roundhouse. They heard Kah' -kah-te say, 
'^^kah'-ahk" and saw a spark of fire come out of the 
hole on top of the house. Then they went to a 
dead tree and got some too-koom' (the kind of 
buckskin that comes on dead wood) and cut off a 

149 



Wi)t Baton ol tfje ©Korlti 



piece and took it and climbed up on top of 
Kah'-kah-te's house and sat by the smoke hole and 
waited. After a while Kah'-kah-te again said 
"kah'-ahk,^^ and another spark came out, but they 
could not reach it. But the next time Kah'-kah-te 
said ^'kah'-ahk" and another spark came out the 
little brothers caught it in their too-koom\ the 
wood buckskin. 

When they had done this they caught a little bug 
and pushed him in backward till he touched the 
spark. Then they said, "Let's go," and set out at 
once and traveled as fast as they could toward Tu- 
le-yo'-me. 

Just then Kah'-kah-te the Crow came out of his 
house and in the darkness saw a little speck of light 
moving back and forth among the trees. It was 
the fire bug going home with the little Shrew 
brothers. Kah'-kah-te when he saw it cried, "Some- 
body has stolen my fire," and set out in pursuit. 

The little brothers and the firefly were badly 
frightened and ran around a little hill so Kah'-kah- 
te could not see them, and hid under the bank of a 
dry creek. Kah'-kah-te hunted for them for some 
time but could not find them and went back to his 
house. His mate, who was inside, said, "Nobody 
stole our fire." 

Kah'-kah-te answered, "Yes, someone stole it, 
I saw it go around." Then he went back into his 
house. 

Then the We'-ke-wU'-lah brothers ran as fast 

150 



^ntient ^Hptfjsf 



as they could all the way back to Tu'-le-yo'-me and 
arrived there the same night. They said to Ol'-le, 
"Grandfather, look," and tossed him the too- 
koom' - the tree buckskin with the fire inside. He 
unrolled it and found the fire and took it out and 
made a fire on the ground. 

Wek'-wek exclaimed, "That is good; I'm glad; 
now everybody can have fire." 

Then Ol'-le put the fire in the oo'-noo (buckeye) 
tree, and told the people how to rub the oo'-noo 
stick to make it come out. From that time to this 
everybody has known how to get fire from the 
oo'-noo tree. 



ISl 



How Cha'-ka the Tule-wren shot out the 

Sun 

A Tale of the Olamentko Indians of Bodega Bay 



Personages 
O'-ye the Coyote-man 

Chd'-kd the Tule-wren, a poor orphan boy 
Koo-loo'-pe the Humming-bird 



152 



out tje ^un 

CHA'-KA the Tule-wren was a poor worthless 
boy. He had no father and no mother and 
went from house to house begging, and the 
people gave him food to eat. Nobody liked him, 
and finally they tired of feeding him. One day 
he told them that if they did not give him food he 
would shoot out the Sun. Then everybody laughed. 
Again he said he surely would shoot it out. They 
said, "Go ahead and shoot." 

So he did; he sent his arrow right up into the 
Sun and let the light out and the whole world be- 
came dark. There was no Sun, no Moon, no 
Stars, no Fire -everything was dark. It was dark 
for years and years and the people could not see 
to find food, and everybody was starving. 

All this time O'-ye the Coyote-man was thinking 
how he could get the Sun and light back again. 
At length he saw just a little light a long way 
ofif. He sent Koo-loo'-pe the Humming-bird to 
steal it. 

Koo-loo'-pe set out on the long journey and final- 
ly came to the fire and stole a little piece and 

153 



Cfje Baton of tf)e Wlovlti 



brought it back under his chin - you can see the 
blaze there to this day. 

When he was bringing it somebody chased him, 
but he was so small and flew so swiftly they could 
not see which way he went and could not catch 
him. So he escaped with the fire and brought it 
back to O'-ye the Coyote-man, and the people had 
light again. 



1S4 



How Wek'-wek was saved from the Flood 

Fragment of a Tale of the Olamentko Tribe 
OF Bodega Bay 



Personages 
O'-ye the Coyote-man 
Wek'- wek the Falcon 
Pe'-leet the Grebe 



156 



JlotD Wtk'\x^tk tDag siabeb from 
tfje jFloob 

O'-YE the Coyote-man, and Wek'-wek the 
Falcon-man quarrelled. Then O'-ye gath- 
ered up the people and took them away with 
him across the ocean, leaving Wek'-wek alone. Then 
he made the rain come and cover the world with 
water. The water grew deeper and deeper and 
covered all the trees and all the hills and all the 
mountains until nothing was left but water. 

Wek'-wek could find no place to rest -nothing 
to stand on -and had to fly and fly and fly till he 
was all tired out. By and by he could fly no longer 
and fell on the water and was floating around 
nearly dead when his wing caught on a little stick. 
This stick stuck up from the top of the roundhouse 
of Pe'-leet the Grebe, who came up to see what was 
the matter. He found Wek'-wek (a relative of 
his) nearly drowned and pulled him down into his 
roundhouse and saved him. 

Then O'-ye the Coyote-man let the water down 
and brought the people back. 



157 



Why the Bodega Bay Indians can not 
STAND Cold 

A Tale of the Bodega Olamentko 



Personage 
O'-ye the Coyote-man 



158 



W^l^ tiie Pobesa ]&slv MUmsi can 
not mnb Colb 

WHEN O'-ye the Coyote-man had every- 
thing ready he thought he would make 
people. So he gathered a lot of sticks of 
different kinds - some hard, as oak, madrone, and 
manzanita; some soft and hollow, as the sage-herb - 
and made a big pile of them and said that by and by 
they would turn into people. 

Then he went over all the country and where- 
ever he wanted a village he laid down two sticks, 
and gave the place a name -and the name he gave 
it then has always been its name and is its name to 
this day. Then he went away. 

In a short time the sticks turned into people, 
and all the rancherias were started with the first 
real people. 

In places where he had put sticks of hard wood 
the people were strong and well and warm-blooded 
and could stand cold weather; but in places where 
he put poor wood the people were weak and sickly 
and could not stand cold weather. Here at Bode- 
ga Bay he left only sticks of Po'-to-po'-to the sage- 
herb, ^^ which has a hollow stem and has no strength. 
That is the reason our people are tender and weak 

17 The sage-herb is a form of Artemisia ludoviciana. 

1S9 



Wbt BaUin of tf)e Wiatlh 



and can not stand cold, and why nearly all died 
soon after the white men came. We are hollow 
inside and can not stand cold. 



im 



Hoi-AH'-KO Tales of the Southern Mewuk 

As told in the foothills of the Merced River region 

The Tales 

Yel'-lo-kin and Oo-wel'-lin the man-eating Giants 

Oo-wel'-lin the Rock Giant 

Tim-me-ld'-le the Thunder 

Wek'-wek's search for his Father 

Wek'-wek's search for his Sister 

Wek'-wek's visit to the Underworld 

Principal Personages 
Hoi-ah'-ko the First People 

We'-pi-ahk the Golden Eagle, Chief of the First People 
Tu'-pe the Kangaroo-rat, We'-pi-ahk's wife 
Yel'-lo-kin the Giant Bird who lived on top of the sky 
Oo-wel'-lin the Rock Giant 

Ol-lusmuk-ki'-e the Toad-woman, We'-pi-ahk's Aunt 
Ah-hd'-le the Coyote-man 
Oo'-choom the Fly 
Tim-me-ld'-le the Thunder 
Wek'-wek the Falcon 
Yi'-yil, Wek'-iuek's father 
Yow'-hah the Mallard Duck, Wek'-wek's wife 
Hoo-loo'-e the Dove, Wek'-wek's partner 
O-wah'-to the big-headed Fire Lizard 
Ho'-ho the Turkey Buzzard, a wicked Chief of the South 

People 
Koo'-choo, another wicked Chief of the South People 
Lol'-luk the Woodrat, one of the firemen 
No-put' -kul-lol the Screech-owl, the other fireman 
Pel-pel'-nah the Nuthatch, one of the witch doctors 
Choo-ta-tok'-kwe-lah the Red-headed Sapsucker, the other 

witch doctor 
Ah'-ut the Crow, Wek'-wek's nephew 
O-hum'-mah-te the Grizzly Bear 
He-le'-jah the Mountain Lion 
To-to'-kon the Sandhill Crane, chief of the Underworld 

People 

162 



||ot=af)=ko Kait^ of tije ^outtern 
JWetuuk 

Yel'-lo-kin and Oo-wel'-lin, the Man-eating 

Giants 

WE'-PI-AHK the Eagle was chief of the 
First People. He took for his wife 
Tu'-pe the Kangaroo-rat. She did not 
stay at home nights because night was the time she 
went out to hunt for food. We'-pi-ahk did not 
understand this and when she came back one morn- 
ing he beat her and killed her. After that he 
stayed at home a month and cried and never went 
out. When the month was up he stopped crying 
and went out in the sun. 

Next day Yel'-lo-kin came. Yel'-lo-kin was a 
giant bird -the biggest bird in the world. He was 
in the habit of carrying off children -boys and girls 
up to fourteen or fifteen years of age. He took 
them by the top of the head and carried them up 
through the hole in the middle of the sky to his 
home on top of the sky, where he killed and ate 
them. 

Yel'-lo-kin had a wife. She was Ol'-lus muk- 
ki'-e the Toad-woman, the aunt of We'-pi-ahk the 
Eagle. Yel'-lo-kin had stolen her from the earth 
and had taken her up to his house above the sky. 

163 



Cte ©atun of tfje W^oxlh 



He did not kill her but kept her as his wife, and 
brought people to her to eat; but she would not 
eat people. 

When We'-pi-ahk the Eagle had gone out in the 
sun Yel'-lo-kin came and caught him by the top of 
his head and carried him up through the hole in 
the sky. 

A boy playing outside saw this and shouted to 
the people, and they all got poles and bows and 
arrows and tried to reach Yel'-lo-kin but could not, 
and Yel'-lo-kin went on up with We'-pi-ahk and 
took him to his house on top of the sky and left him 
there. When We'-pi-ahk looked around he saw 
his aunt, Ol'-lus muk-ki'-e the Toad-woman. She 
told him to look out, that in a little while Yel'-lo- 
kin would come back and kill him. " He will take 
you to a big tank of blood and ask if you want to 
drink," she said. "When he does this you must 
answer 'yes' and pretend to reach down, and tell 
him the water is too low, you can't reach it; you 
are afraid of falling in. Ask him to show you how 
to get it." 

"All right," answered We'-pi-ahk -he would do 
as she said. 

Then she gave him a big stone knife with which 
to cut ofif Yel'-lo-kin s head. 

Soon Yel'-lo-kin returned and did exactly as his 
wife said he would do. When he asked We'-pi- 
ahk to drink, We'-pi-ahk told him he could not 
reach the water; he was afraid of falling in, and 

164 



jancicnt iHptfjs! 



asked Yel'-lo-kin to show him how. Then Yel'-lo- 
kin leaned over and reached down deep in the tank, 
and We'-pi-ahk struck him with the big knife and 
cut off his head, whereupon Yel'-lo-kin banged 
around inside the tank and flapped his big wings 
and made a great noise, and finally flopped out and 
died outside. He stretched out his wings and they 
were as big as pine trees. Then We'-pi-ahk was 
free. 

Ah-hd'-le the Coyote-man was down below. We'- 
pi-ahk the Eagle was his uncle. Ah-hd'-le asked 
the people, "Where is my uncle, We'-pi-ahk'^'''' 

The boys told him he had gone up -that Yel'-lo- 
kin had carried him up through the sky. Ah-hd'-le 
looked but could not see the hole they had gone 
through. Then he went south and looked for the 
south hole in the sky, but could not find it. Re- 
turning, he went north to the hole at Thunder 
Mountain, but could not get in that way for it was 
too cold. Then he came back to the village and 
sprang up high in the air and passed through the 
middle hole in the sky -the same hole that Yel'- 
lo-kin had gone through with We'-pi-ahk. 

Just as he arrived, at that very moment We'-pi- 
ahk struck Yel'-lo-kin with the knife and killed 
him, and Ah-hd'-le saw him die. 

" It is a good thing that you killed him," Ah- 
hd'-le said. 

We'-pi-ahk replied, " He has been stealing our 
boys and girls ; whenever he was hungry he went 

165 



^iit BaUin ot tfie WSiovVb 



down and got a boy or a girl. We lost lots of 
people." 

Then We'-pi-ahk showed Ah-ha-le the tank of 
blood where Yel'-lo-kin had done his killing. 

After a while Ah-ha-le asked, "What are you 
going to do with Yel'-lo-kin?" 

We'-pi-ahk said he was going to burn him, so 
he would not come to life again. 

But Ah-hd'-le replied, " No uncle, you had better 
not burn him." 

Then We'-pi-ahk asked, "What are you going 
to do with him?" 

Ah-hd'-le answered, "I think I'll cut off his 
wings and take them down home." 

"What are you going to do with them?" asked 
We'-pi-ahk. 

Ah-hd'-le replied, " I'm going to plant the big 
feathers and make trees. If I plant plenty of trees 
and everything green, there will be many people, 
for when I'm done planting trees I'm going to 
make people." 

When he had finished speaking he went down to 
the earth through a hole of his own, for he was a 
witch doctor. 

After he had gone down, Yel'-lo-kin's wife, 01'- 
lus muk-ki'-e the Toad-woman, asked We'-pi-ahk 
how he was going to get down. 

" I don't know," answered We'-pi-ahk. 

" I'll take you down," said Ol'-lus muk-ki'-e. 

" How," asked We'-pi-ahk. 

166 



^mitnt iWpttji 



" You will see how," she replied. And she gath- 
ered the strong green sword-grass called kis'-soo, 
that grows by the river, and made a long rope of it 
and with it let We'-pi-ahk down to the earth. 

Ah-hd'-le the Coyote-man planted the feathers, 
and when they had come up watched them grow. 
They grew into grasses, wild oats, flowers, man- 
zanitas, and other bushes, and into yellow pines, 
sugar pines, black oaks, blue oaks, and other kinds 
of trees. He told them all to bear seed every year 
so the people who were coming would have plenty 
to eat. He also made rivers and rocks - Yel'-lo- 
kin's heart he turned into a black rock. 

When he had done this he made people. 
These also he made by planting feathers. The peo- 
ple multiplied and in a short time their villages 
were everywhere in the land. 



167 



THERE was a great Giant who lived in the 
north. His name was Oo-wel'-lin, and he 
was as big as a pine tree. When he saw the 
country full of people he said they looked good to 
eat, and came and carried them ofif and ate them. 
He could catch ten men at a time and hold them 
between his fingers, and put more in a net on his 
back, and carry them ofif. He would visit a village 
and after eating all the people would move on to 
another, going southward from his home in the 
north. When he had gone to the south end of the 
world and had visited all the villages and eaten 
nearly all the people -not quite all, for a few had 
escaped -he turned back toward the north. He 
crossed the Wah-kal'-mut-ta (Merced River) at a 
narrow place in the canyon about six miles above 
Op'-lah (Merced Falls) where his huge footprints 
may still be seen in the rocks, showing the exact 
place where he stepped from Ang-e'-sa-wd'-pah on 
the south side to Hik-kd'-nah on the north side. 
When night came he went into a cave in the side 
of a round-topped hill over the ridge from Se-saw- 
che [a little south of the present town of Coulter- 
ville]. 

The people who had escaped found his sleeping 

169 



t!^t Baton of tte WBioxVb 



place in the cave and shot their arrows at him but 
were not able to hurt him, for he was a rock giant. 

When he awoke he was hungry and took the trail 
to go hunting. Then the people said to Oo'-choom 
the Fly: "Go follow Oo-wel'-lin and when he is 
hot bite him all over, on his head, on his eyes and 
ears, and all over his body, everywhere, all the way 
down to the bottoms of his feet, and find out where 
he can be hurt. 

"All right," answered Oo'-choom the Fly, and he 
did as he was told. He followed Oo-wel'-lin and 
bit him everywhere from the top of his head all the 
way down to his feet without hurting him, till 
finally he bit him under the heel. This made 
Oo-wel'-lin kick. Oo'-choom waited, and when 
the giant had fallen asleep bit him under the heel 
of the other foot, and he kicked again. Then 
Oo'-choom told the people. 

When the people heard this they took sharp 
sticks and long sharp splinters of stone and set them 
up firmly in the trail, and hid nearby and watched. 
After a while Oo-wel'-lin came back and stepped 
on the sharp points till the bottoms of his feet were 
stuck full of them. This hurt him dreadfully, and 
he fell down and died. 

When he was dead the people asked, "Now he 
is dead, what are we to do with him?" 

And they all answered that they did not know. 

But a wise man said, "We will pack wood and 
make a big fire and burn him." 

170 



iSmient iWipttJJf 



Then everyone said, "All right, let's burn him," 
and they brought a great quantity of dry wood and 
made a big fire and burned Oo-wel'-lin the Giant. 
When he began to burn, the wise man told every- 
body to watch closely all the time to see if any part 
should fly off to live again, and particularly to 
watch the whites of his eyes. So all the people 
watched closely all the time he was burning. His 
flesh did not fly off; his feet did not fly off; his 
hands did not fly off; but by and by the whites of 
his eyes flew off quickly -so quickly indeed that no 
one but Chik'-chik saw them go. Chik'-chik was 
a small bird whose eyes looked sore, but his sight 
was keen and quick. He was watching from a 
branch about twenty feet above the Giant's head 
and saw the whites of the eyes fly out. He saw 
them fly out and saw where they went and quickly 
darted after them and brought them back and put 
them in the fire again, and put on more wood and 
burnt them until they were completely consumed. 

The people now made a hole and put Oo-wel'- 
lin's ashes in it and piled rocks on the place and 
watched for two or three days. But Oo-wer-lin 
was dead and never came out. 

Then the wise man asked each person what he 
would like to be, and called their names. Each 
answered what animal he would be, and forthwith 
turned into that animal and has remained the same 
to this day. 

This was the beginning of the animals as they 

171 

10 



Wi)t ©aton of tf)e Wiovlti 



are now- the deer, the ground squirrel, the bear, 
and other furry animals; the bluejay, the quail, and 
other birds of all kinds, and snakes and frogs and 
the yellowjacket wasp and so on. 

Before that they were Hoi-ah'-ko - the FIRST 
PEOPLE. 



172 



WHEN Oo-wer-lin the Giant was trav- 
eling south over the country eating peo- 
ple, there were two little boys, brothers, 
who were out hunting when he was at their village, 
and so escaped. When they came home they found 
that their father and mother and all the other 
people had been killed and eaten. 

The younger one asked the other, "What shall 
we do? Shall we live here, only two of us? May- 
be you are clever enough to turn into some other 
kind of thing and never die." 

The elder brother did not know; he was stupid; 
the younger was the bright one. 

For about a month they hunted birds and ate 
them; they had no acorn mush or other food, noth- 
ing but birds. One day they made a little hut of 
brush (called o-hoo'-pe) by a spring where the 
birds came to drink. Here they killed a great many 
birds of different kinds. 

The younger brother said, " Let us save all the 
feathers of the birds we kill -wing feathers and 
tail feathers and all." 

Soon they had enough for both, and the younger 
said, "We have enough. Let's be big birds and 
never die -never grow old." 

173 



Ci)e Baton of tfie ^orUi 



"How are we to do it?" asked the elder brother. 

The younger answered, " You know how the big 
birds spread their wings and go, without bothering 
to eat or drink." 

In a few days they took the big wing-feathers 
they had saved and stuck them in a row along their 
arms, and soon had wings ; and then they stuck other 
feathers all over their bodies and soon were covered 
with feathers, like big birds. 

Then the younger brother said: "You fly; let 
me see you fly a little way." The elder brother 
tried but could not make his wings go. 

"Try again and I'll help," said the younger, and 
he pushed his brother along; but though he tried 
again he could not fly, and dropped down. 

Then they took more feathers and set them closer 
so they would not leak air. When they had done 
this the younger asked: "Do you think you can 
go this time?" 

But the elder one replied, " Let's see you try." 

"All right," the younger answered, and flew a 
little way. 

"Now you try," he called, and lifted his brother 
up and pushed him to help him start, but when he 
had flown a little way he cried out that he could 
not go any farther. 

"Go on, I'm coming," called the younger, and 
he soon caught up and came under his brother and 
sailed round and round and went up into the air 
and came down. 

174 



c 



• 73 




iantient iHptfjjf 



Then the younger said, " Now we can fly, what 
kind of animal shall we be?" 

The elder answered that he did not know. 

The younger said, " How about We-ho'-whe- 
mah, who lives on the water in the back country?" 

"All right," replied the other. So they flew again, 
and the younger helped start the elder and flew 
under him so as to catch him if he fell, and they 
flew up and down and around. 

The younger again asked his brother if he would 
like to be W e-ho' -whe-mah. 

The brother replied, "No, I don't want to live 
on the water." 

"Then how would you like to be Tim-me-la-le 
the Thunder," asked the younger. "We could come 
back sometimes and make a big noise and frighten 
the people. In summer we could go up through 
the north hole in the sky and stay up above the sky, 
and in winter come back here and make a big noise 
and rain to make the country green. Then maybe 
the people would come back and live again. We 
once had a father and mother and sister and uncle 
and grandfather and others. Maybe they would 
come back. We want to help them ; we could make 
good rain to make things grow- acorns, pine nuts, 
grass, and all. Then maybe the people would come 
back and eat. We should never use food, never 
drink water, never grow old, and never be killed." 

"All right," answered the elder, "We shall 
live always. But how are we going to make rain?" 

177 



Vtfft IBahin of tte Wiovlh 



" I'll show you," answered the younger. And 
they started again and went up very slowly, way 
up to the sky, and went north and found the north 
hole and went through it. When near the sky, but 
before they had gone through, the younger began 
to make a loud rumbling noise; it was Tim-me- 
Id'-le the Thunder.^^ The elder tried but failed. 
The younger told him to try again. He did so and 
in a short time made thunder all right. Then they 
went through the hole and up above the sky into 
the Yel'-lo-kin country. 

When winter time came the younger said, "Come, 
let us go back." So they came down through the 
hole in the sky and traveled south and saw that 
people were there already. Then they shouted and 
made thunder and rain. After that they returned 
home through the north hole in the sky. And every 
winter even to this day they come back and thunder 
and make rain to make things grow for the people. 



18 Tim-me-ld'-le is rolling thunder ; the sharp crash is Kah'-loo. 

178 



Witk^=\iitk*^ ^earcf) for W Jf attet 

A H-HA'-LE the Coyote-man told the people 
/ \ that there were four holes in the sky- one in 
Ji iLthe north, one in the south, one in the east, 
and one in the west. In those days Tim-me-la-le 
the Thunder came out of the north hole in winter 
and went back about May, just as he does now. 

At this time Wek'-wek the Falcon was not yet 
born. His father, Yi'-yil, had gone far away to 
the south, where he had been killed before Wek'- 
wek's birth. 

When Wek'-wek was fourteen years old he al- 
ready had two or three wives, one of whom was 
Yow'-hah the Mallard Duck. He asked her if she 
was old enough to have seen his father. She re- 
plied, "No." 

He then traveled all about and asked all the 
people who his father was and where he had gone, 
but no one could tell him. Then he went out to 
search ; he traveled north, south, east, and west, but 
could find no trace of his father and no one could 
tell him where he had gone. 

Then Wek'-wek transformed himself into a 
witch doctor and said, " Now I know where my 
father went, I smell him." 

At sundown he came home to Yow'-hah his wife, 

179 



W\)t Baton of ttje ^orlb 



and when she had fallen asleep he took a forked 
limb of a tree and put it in the bed beside her. 
Then he went down into a hole in the ground and 
came up near the village [thus leaving no tracks]. 
Then he went south. 

In the morning Yow'-hah awoke and found the 
forked limb and pushed it away saying, " What's 
the matter with my husband?" She asked his other 
wives if they had seen which way he went -"Which 
way did our husband go?" she asked. 

They replied, " Go away, you live with him, we 
don't." 

Then Yow'-hah went away and cried. She cried 
for a day or so, but no one could tell her which way 
Wek'-wek had gone. 

She then took a crooked acorn stick and stuck it 
in the ground and the stick sprang south. Then 
she knew the way he had gone, and quickly pre- 
pared some baskets of food and set out to follow 
him. 

After a while she overtook him, bringing him 
the food. By this time Wek'-wek was very tired 
and had fallen down on the side of the trail. He 
had a partner, Hoo-loo'-e the Dove, who accom- 
panied him. He said to Hoo-loo'-e, " The old 
woman is coming behind ; I am going to shoot her." 
But when she came he could not pull the arrow. 
She went to him and said, " You are hungry; I've 
brought you food." 

He was angry and would not answer. He said 

180 



Ancient ilptfjs! 



to Hoo-loo'-e his partner, "You are hungry, you 
had better eat." 

Hoo-loo'-e replied, "Yes, I think I am hungry." 

"Well, eat," said Wek'-wek, and Hoo-loo'-e ate. 

Wek'-wek was angry and would not eat. He told 
his wife to go home and not follow him. He said: 
" I go to a bad place; I follow my father; nobody 
can get through the hole in the sky; you go home." 

She answered, "No, I'll not go home, I'll follow 
you." 

Then Wek'-wek continued on the trail of his 
father. 

Wek'-wek had an aunt, Ol'-lus muk-ki'-e the 
Toad-woman. Her husband was O-wah'-to, the 
big-headed Fire Lizard. He had a fire which he 
could send to burn people. 

Wek'-wek told Hoo-loo'-e his partner to go 
around another way with Yow'-hah his wife while 
he stopped to talk to his aunt's husband, O-wah'-to. 
Again he told his wife to go home, but she would 
not. Then Wek'-wek went to the place where 
O-wah'-to lived. He saw his aunt Ol'-lus muk- 
ki'-e outside, cracking acorns, and went to her to 
get something to eat. 

O-wah'-to, who was inside the house, called out 
" Who's there? " and his wife answered, " Nobody." 
Then he heard Wek'-wek take another step, and 
called out again, "Who's there?" and again his 
wife answered, "Nobody, only Oo'-choom the 
Fly." She whispered to Wek'-wek to step very 

181 



Cfte Batun of tfte OTorlb 



softly and to eat very quickly- to hurry and eat and 

go- 
But O-wah'-to heard him and exclaimed, "Some- 
body is out there sure," and he came out and saw 
Wek'-wek, and sent his fire to burn him. 

Wek'-wek ran and ran as fast as he could and 
caught up with Hoo-loo'-e and Yow'-hah, but the 
fire chased them and burnt so quickly and came so 
fast that they had not time to reach the hole in the 
sky. So they turned and ran down to the low coun- 
try and climbed up on a high rock; but the fire 
kept on and burned the rock. Then they rushed to 
the ocean, but the fire dashed after them and made 
the water boil. Then they hastened north to an- 
other big rock, as high as a hill, and climbed on 
top ; but the fire pursued and burnt that rock also. 
Then they climbed up into the sky, but the fire 
pressed on and came so close that it singed the tail 
of Wek'wek's quiver. Then they ran down into 
the low country again and found a crack in the 
ground and all three crawled into it. But the fire 
came and burnt down into the crack and drove 
them out. 

By this time Wek'-wek's wife, Yow'-hah, had 
become very tired from so much running, and gave 
out. She said to her husband, "You are of no ac- 
count. Why don't you put out that fire? I would 
like to see you make a pond half a mile wide." 

" I'll try," he answered and shot an arrow of the 
kow'-wQo wood (the buttonball bush) into the 

182 



^ntimt iWptJjjf 



ground and water came up through the hole and 
continued to rise until they all stood in water, but 
still the fire beset them and made the water boil. 
Yow'-hah said she thought she would die. Then 
Wek'-wek shot an arrow into the ground in another 
place and a spring of water came and green stuff 
grew around the edges ; but the fire continued and 
made the water boil as before. 

Again Yow'-hah said, "You are of no account; 
you would die if I had not followed you." 

Wek'-wek answered, "All right, you try." 

Yow'-hah took a tule and threw it, and a big 
spring burst out, bordered all around with a broad 
belt of green tules ; and they stepped into the spring 
and the fire could not reach them -it could not 
burn the green tules. So the fire went out and 
there was no more fire. Yow'-hah the old woman 
had stopped the fire. She was proud of this and 
said, "You see, if I had stayed at home you would 
be dead; if I go you will be all right." And the 
three continued on together. 

By and by they came to the hole -the south hole 
in the sky. Then Wek'-wek said, " You two had 
better go home, you can't get through the hole." 

His wife answered " No," and tried to go through 
but failed. 

Wek'-wek shot an arrow through, but the hole 
closed so quickly that it caught the arrow and broke 
it. He again said to the others, "You can't get 
through." Then he tried and jumped so quickly 

183 



Wi)t Baton ot tfje WUixlH 



that he went through. Then Hoo-loo'-e his partner 
tried, and likewise jumped very quickly and got 
through, and the sky did not catch him. Then 
Yow'-hah had to try again. Wek'-wek told her she 
must go through or go back. But she was too big 
and too slow. She said, " You will have to take me 
through." So he went back and got her and put 
her into his dog-skin quiver and jumped through 
with her. As they passed through, the hole closed 
and caught her feet and crushed them flat- that is 
why all ducks have flat feet. 

Now all three were through. 

In the south, beyond the hole in the sky, were 
other people. They had two chiefs, Ho'-ho the 
Turkey Buzzard, and Koo'-choo a huge shaggy 
beast of great strength and fierceness. Tap-pitch' - 
koo-doot the Kingbird lived there, and Hok'-ke- 
hok'-ke also. 

Before Wek'-wek arrived, Captain Ho'-ho the 
Buzzard said to the people, " I dreamed that a 
north Indian is coming -the son of Yt'-yil, the man 
we burned. Everybody watch ; maybe we shall 
have a good time again." So everybody watched. 

After a while the watchers saw Wek'-wek com- 
ing. They saw him come through the hole. Then 
they ran back and told the people. This made the 
people happy, and they made ready to play the ball 
game. 

When Wek'-wek reached the village he saw his 
father's widow there crying, with her hair cut short 

184 



Ancient iHprtjfi 



in mourning. He asked her, " Did my father die 
here?" 

"Yes," she answered, and added, "Your father 
had plenty of money when he lost the game, but the 
chiefs Koo'-choo and Ho'-ho would not take the 
money ; they were playing for his life ; they wanted 
to burn him. Old Koo'-choo made a circle around 
the fire and made your father stand in the middle, 
and told him not to die too soon. After he had 
been burning a little while Koo'-choo asked how 
far the fire had burned, and Yi'-yil answered, ' to 
my knees, I'm going to die.' 

"*No, don't die yet,' said Koo'-choo; and he 
asked again, ' How far has the fire burned now?' 

" Yi'-yil answered, ' to my belly, and I'm going 
to die now.' 

"'No, don't die yet,' said Koo'-choo, and he 
asked again, 'How far has the fire burned now? ' 

" ' To my heart,' replied Yi'-yil, 'and I'm going 
to die now.' 

" ' No, no,' again said Koo'-choo, ' don't die yet; 
how far has the fire burned now?' 

"'To my shoulders and I'm going to die,' said 
Yi'yil. 

"'No, don't die yet; how far has the fire burned 
now?' 

" ' To my mouth, and I'm going to die,' answered 
Yi'-yil. 

" 'No, not yet, there's plenty of time yet,' said 
Koo'-choa ; ' how far has it burned now? ' 

185 



trjje ©aiun of tte ^orlb 



'"To my eyes, it's burning my eyes now and I'm 
going to die,' replied Yi'-yil. 

'"No, no,' said Koo'-choo, 'don't die yet;' and 
when he saw that the fire had reached the top of 
Yi'-yU's head he asked again and for the last time, 
' How far has it burned now?' 

"There was no reply, and he knew, and all the 
people knew, that Yi'-yil was burned to death and 
was dead." 

This is what Yi'-yil's widow, who had seen the 
burning, told Wek'-wek. 

Wek'-wek was very angry; he knew that the peo- 
ple wanted to burn him as they had burned Yi'-yil 
his father ; and he made up his mind what he would 
do. He left his wife Yow'-hah with Koo'-choo and 
the others and told her to entertain them. He then 
asked his father's widow which way they had taken 
his father to play the ball game. She told him, and 
he followed his father's trail. He found gopher 
holes in the trail, and holes the people had made 
for the ball to fall into so he would lose the game, 
and he filled them up. He came back over Koo'- 
choo's trail by daylight and found it all right- all 
the holes filled up and no holes left. 

When he returned he found that the two firemen, 
Lol'-luk the Woodrat and No-put' -kul-lol the 
Screech Owl, had the fire all ready to burn him, but 
he said nothing. 

Early next morning they all set out down the 
trail to play the ball game. Wek'-wek played so 

186 



Ancient J$lpti)£! 



fast that old Koo'-choo became very tired and near- 
ly gave out. He shot out a terrible skunk-like 
smell to make Wek'-wek sick, but Wek'-wek kept 
ahead and was not harmed. ^ 

Wek'-wek won the game and came back first; 
all the others were tired and Koo'-choo came in 
half dead. 

When they had returned, Yow'-hah, Wek'-wek's 
wife, told Wek'-wek to burn Koo'-choo first. 

Koo'-choo said to Wek'-wek: "You have won 
the game; everybody will bring you money; here 
is the money; you take it." 

Wek'-wek answered, "No, I'll not take it. You 
would not take my father's money; you took his 
life." 

Then they brought two more sacks full of money, 
but Wek'-wek pushed it away. He seized the two 
wicked chiefs, Koo'-choo and Ho'ho; he seized 
them by their arms and threw them into the fire 
that had been prepared for him, and took the others 
in the same way and threw them all in the fire. 
Some ran away and tried to hide, but Wek'-wek 
went after them and brought them back and threw 
them in the fire -men, women, and children- and 
burned them all. He then called the firemen to 
come-Lol'-luk the Woodrat and No-put' -kul-lol 
the Screech Owl -but they cried and refused to 
come. Then he took his bow and arrow and shot 
them and pitched them into the fire and they were 
burned like the rest. 

187 



^t Baton ot ti)e W^orlh 



The only people not burned were two witch 
doctors- Pel-pel' -nah the Nuthatch and Choo-ta- 
tok'-kwe-lah the Red-headed Sapsucker. They 
lived in the big ceremonial house and never came 
out; they never ate and never drank. Wek'-wek 
asked them, "Shall I come in?" 

They answered " Yes." 

Wek'-wek went inside and said: "You two are 
witch doctors; you never eat and never drink and 
never see people. Do you think you can make my 
father live again? I'll pay you. I want to see my 
father. I want to see what he is like." 

They answered that they would try. One said 
to the other: "We will try; yes, we must try; but 
how shall we do it? " Then they took a jointed rod 
of la -hah (the wild cane) and put Yi'-yil's burnt 
bones in the hollow inside, and put three or four 
feathers on the outside, like an arrow. Then Choo- 
ta-tok'-kwe-lah asked Wek'-wek for his bow, and 
took it and shot the cane arrow high up into the 
air; and when it was way up, Yi'-yil came slowly 
out of the hole in the end and sailed around and 
around, coming lower and lower, till he came down 
where the others were. 

Then Wek'-wek asked him, "Are you my father? 
You don't look as I supposed." 

Yi'-yil answered, "Yes, I'm Yi'-yil your father." 

Wek'-wek said, " I've burned all the people here. 
Will you go home with me? Are you sure you are 
my father?" 

188 



Ancient ilpt^JS 



"Yes," answered Yi'-yil, I'm your father and I'll 
go home with you." 

"All right," said Wek'-wek, " Let's go." 

After a while, when they had gone a little way, 
Wek'-wek turned and said, " I think you had better 
not go with me. You look queer -only half like 
us. You go to the other side of the mountain down 
on the coast" (meaning Oo'-yum-bel'-le^ Mount 
Diablo). Then Yi'-yil went back into the cane 
arrow, and Wek'-wek^ his wife Yow'-hah, and his 
partner Hoo-loo'-e returned through the hole in the 
sky that they had gone through on their way south. 

When they were on the other side, Wek'-wek 
said to his wife : "Old woman, you may have to run 
again. I'm going to kill O-wah'-to, my uncle-in- 
law, who chased us with fire and tried to destroy 
us when we were here before." So he sent Yow'- 
hah and Hoo-loo'-e ahead and told them to wait for 
him while he proceeded to O-wah'-to's place. He 
went there and shot O-wah'-to with an arrow and 
killed him dead the first shot. 

Then they continued on, and when they had gone 
a few miles, they came to another fireman, whose 
name was Hos-sok'-kil-wah. Wek'-wek sent his 
wife and partner ahead as before while he went 
alone to fight Hos-sok'-kil-wah. He took an arrow 
with a point of white flint stone, and shot and killed 
Hos-sok'-kil-wah, who at once turned into the 
white flint fire rock. And so they continued, Wek'- 
wek killing all the had people on the way. 

189 

11 



Wtk=\sitk'^ ^earcj) for W Visiter 

AFTER Wek'-wek, Hoo-loo'-e and Yow'- 
I \jiah had returned home, Wek'-wek said, " I 
J. iLhave heard that I once had a sister; where 
is my sister?" 

No one answered. 

Then Wek'-wek slept and dreamed. Then he 
went off alone to the north and told no one. 

Wek'-wek had a nephew, Ah'-ut the Crow. Ah'- 
ut asked the people, "Where is my uncle?" No 
one answered. Then Ah'-ut said he would find 
him, and he also set out for the north. Finding 
that he could not catch up with Wek'-wek he shot 
an arrow and the arrow went over Wek'-wek's 
head and fell just beyond. 

Wek'-wek knew who had shot it, and said, "Who 
told my nephew?" 

When Ah'-ut came up, Wek'-wek asked, " Why 
do you follow me? I'm searching for my sister; 
you go home." 

"No," answered Ah'-ut, " I'll go with you." 

Then Wek'-wek's brothers, two little hawks, 
who also had been following, overtook Wek'-wek 
and Ah'-ut and all went on together. 

After a while they found the rancheria. It was 
in a big cave about two miles below Koo-loo'-te 

191 



Wtt ©aton of ttc ©Horlb 



[now the town of Sonora in Tuolumne County]. 
PVek'-wek sent one of his little brothers into the 
cave. He went in and on one side of the entrance 
saw O-hum'-mah-te the Grizzly Bear, and on the 
other side He-le'-jah the Mountain Lion, but saw 
nothing of the sister. 

Then Wek'-wek sent in the other brother. When 
he returned he said some one was inside cooking 
acorns ; he had seen a woman cook the acorn soup 
by putting into the basket hot quail eggs instead of 
hot stones. He said also that farther back in the 
cave was something that looked like a sharp rock. 

Then Ah'-ut the Crow said he would go in. 
When he found the woman cooking with the quail 
eggs he picked them up and took off the shells and 
ate all the eggs. Then he asked the woman, " Is 
my uncle's sister here?" 

"Yes," she answered, "but you can't go in." 

But he did go in, and when he came to He-le'-jah 
the Mountain Lion, he said, " You are good to eat," 
and shot him with an arrow and killed him. Then 
he turned to 0-hum'mah-te the Grizzly Bear and 
said the same to him, and killed him also and pulled 
him out. Then he went in farther and saw the 
Sharp Rock and shot it also and killed it, and 
picked up his arrow and put it back in his quiver. 
Then he went still farther in and found TVek'-wek's 
sister. She was old and naked and shriveled - noth- 
ing but bare bones -for no one had given her any- 
thing to eat. 

192 



^ancient iWptfjs! 



Ah'-ut returned and told Wek'-wek he could 
now go in, and Wek'-wek went in. When he saw 
his sister without clothes and all bones he felt badly 
and cried. Then he took her out and helped her 
walk, and cooked some acorns and fed her. Then 
he sent her home with his brothers. 



193 



13Sefe=tt)efe^si Vm to tije Mnbertaorltr 
people 

A FTER Wek'-wek had sent his sister home he 
/ X stayed near the caves below Koo-loo'-te and 
JL ^dug holes in the sand and found roots and 
seeds that were good to eat. In digging he came to 
a very deep hole which led down under the world; 
he went down this hole and when he reached the 
underworld found other people there, and got a 
wife with a little boy. Besides his wife there were 
To-to'-kon the Sandhill Crane, Wah'-ah the Her- 
on, Cha-poo'-kah-lah the Blackbird, and others. 

To-to'-kon the Sandhill Crane was chief. When 
he saw Wek'-wek he said, "What shall we do with 
this man ; he is lost; we had better kill him." 

Wek'-wek saw a man make ready with his bow 
and arrow, and invited him to come and eat. The 
man came and ate, and when his belly was full went 
back. 

Captain To-to'-kon said, " I didn't send you to 
eat, but to kill him." Then he sent another, and 
Wek'-wek asked him also to come and eat, and he 
did as the other had done. Then Captain To-to'- 
kon sent two men together to kill him, but Wek'- 
wek called them both to come and eat, and they did 
so. Then To-to'-kon was angry; he sent no more 

195 



^f)t 3iaton of tte WBiovl^ 



men but went himself and took his bow and arrow. 

Wek'-wek said to him, " Come in," whereupon 
To-to'-kon shot his arrow but missed. 

Then Wek'-wek came out and faced the people. 
They fired all their arrows but could not kill him. 
Wek'-wek said, " You can't kill me with arrows. 
Have you a pot big enough to hold me?" 

" Yes," they answered. 

"Then set it up and put me in it," he said. 

And they did as they were told and put Wek'- 
wek in the hot pot and put the cover on. When he 
was burned they took out the burnt bones and bur- 
ied them in the ground. 

Ah'-ut the Crow missed his uncle and went to 
his uncle's partner, Hoo-loo'-e, who was in the hole 
crying, and asked where Wek'-wek was. Hoo- 
loo'-e pointed down the hole. Ah'-ut went down 
and found the rancheria of the underworld people 
and killed them all. He then asked Wek'-wek's 
wife where Wek'-wek was. She answered that the 
people had burned and buried him. 

Wek'-wek stayed in the ground five days and 
then came to life; he came out and asked his wife 
where the people were. She told him that Ah'-ut 
had come and killed them all. "That is too bad," 
he exclaimed, " I wanted to show them what kind 
of man I am." Then he said she should stay there 
and he would take the boy and go home. 

She answered, "All right." 

Then he shot his arrow up through the hole and 

196 



Ancient Mvt^i 



caught hold of it, and held the boy also, and the 
arrow carried them both up to the upper world. 



197 



Tah'-low the Thunder and Tah'-kip' the 
Lightning 

Fragment of a Storm Myth of the Hoo'-koo-e'-ko of 

NiCASIO AND TOMALES BaY 

Personages 
Tah'-low the Thunder 
Tah'-kip' the Lightning 
Koo-ld'-is ka-sum the Mother Deer 
O'-ye the Coyote-man 
Koo'-le the Bear 
Oo'-pah the Rain 



198 



tije iisJtnins 

KOO-LA'-IS KA'-SUM the mother Deer 
died, leaving two boy fawns. Their uncle, 
O'-ye the Coyote-man, sent them away to the 
east, where they still live. 

Once when the country was very dry an old wom- 
an who wanted water, but could not find any, went 
and looked at the boy fawns, and they tore her eyes 
out. That made Tah'-kip' the Lightning. Then 
they took the dry skin of Koo'-le the Bear, and 
shook it. That made Tah'-low the Thunder. Then 
Oo'-pah the Rain came. 



199 



He'-koo-las the Sun-woman 

A Tale of the Hoo'-koo-e'-ko of Tomales Bay 



Personages 
He'-koo-las the Sun-woman 
O'ye the Coyote-man 



200 



J|e=koo=las; tfje ^un=ttioman 

THE world was dark. The only light any- 
where was He'-koo-lds the Sun-woman. She 
lived far away in the east. 
The people wanted light, and O'-ye the Coyote- 
man sent two men to bring He'-koo-lds. They 
traveled a long time, for they had far to go. When 
they came to the place where she lived she refused 
to go back with them. So they came back alone 
and told O'-ye. 

Then he sent more men ; this time he sent enough 
men to bring her whether she wanted to come or 
not. They made the long journey to her home and 
tied her with ropes and brought her back to make 
light for the people. 

Her entire body was covered with ah'-wook - the 
beautiful iridescent shells of the abalone; these 
made her shine so brightly that she gave ofif light 
and it was hard to look at her. 



201 



How O'-YE THE Coyote-man discovered his 
Wife 

A Tale of the Hoo'-koo-e'-ko of Nicasio and San Rafael 



Personages 
O'-ye the Coyote-man 
Wek'-ivek the Falcon, O'-ye's grandson 
Ko-to'-lah the Frog-woman 



202 



w wait 

THE world was made by O'-ye the Coyote- 
man. The earth was covered with water. 
The only thing that showed above the water 
was the very top of Oon'-nah-pi's [Sonoma Peak, 
about forty miles north of San Francisco]. 

In the beginning O'-ye came on a raft from the 
west, from across the ocean. His raft was a mat of 
tules and split sticks; it was long and narrow. 
O'-ye landed on the top of Oon'-nah-pi's and threw 
his raft-mat out over the water -the long way north 
and south, the narrow way east and west; the mid- 
dle rested on the rock on top of the peak. This 
was the beginning of the world and the world is 
still long and narrow like the mat- the long way 
north and south, the narrow way east and west. 

When O'-ye was sitting alone on top of Oon'- 
nah-pi's, and all the rest of the world was covered 
with water, he saw a feather floating toward him, 
blown by the wind from the west -the direction 
from which he himself had come. He asked the 
feather, "Who are you?" 

The feather made no reply. 

He then told the feather about his family and 
all his relatives. When he came to mention Wek'- 

203 



tirtc Baton of tfie WSAotlh 



wek, his grandson, the feather leaped up out of the 
water and said, " I am Wek'-ivek, your grandson." 

O'-ye the Coyote-man was glad, and they talked 
together. 

Every day O'-ye noticed Ko-to'-lah the Frog- 
woman sitting near him. Every time he saw her he 
reached out his hand and tried to catch her, but 
she always jumped into the water and escaped. 

After four days the water began to go down, 
leaving more land on top of the mountain, so that 
Ko-to'-lah had to make several leaps to reach the 
water. This gave O'-ye the advantage and he ran 
after her and caught her. When he had caught 
her he was surprised to find that she was his own 
wife from over the ocean. Then he was glad. 

When the water went down and the land was 
dry O'-ye planted the buckeye and elderberry and 
oak trees, and all the other kinds of trees, and also 
bushes and grasses, all at the same time. But there 
were no people and he and Wek'-wek wanted peo- 
ple. Then O'-ye took a quantity of feathers of dif- 
ferent kinds, and packed them up to the top of 
Oon'-nah-pi's and threw them up into the air and 
the wind carried them off and scattered them over 
all the country and they turned into people, and 
the next day there were people all over the land. 

Note. The above story was told me at Tomales 
Bay by an aged Hookooeko woman, now dead, who 
in her early life lived at Nicasio. Another old 

204 



i^ncient jWptijs! 



woman, who originally came from San Rafael, 
gave me a slightly different version. She said that 
O'-ye the Coyote-man made the feathers up into 
four bundles, which he set in the ground in four 
different places- one in the west, at San Rafael; 
one in the east, at Sonoma; one in the north, near 
Santa Rosa, and one in the south, on the south side 
of San Francisco Bay. Next morning all had 
turned into people, each bundle becoming a dis- 
tinct tribe, speaking a language wholly different 
from the languages of the others. 



203 

12 



^art 2: l^vt^tnt 3Bap iHptftg 

In addition to the Ancient Myths or first people stories, 
which relate to the early history of the world, the Mewan 
tribes have numerous beliefs concerning the present and the very 
recent past. Some of these - mainly fragments or outlines, but 
covering a wide range of subjects - have been collected from 
nearly all the extant tribes and are here brought together. They 
are arranged under the following headings : Beliefs concerning 
Animals ; Beliefs concerning Ghosts and the Sign of Death ; 
Beliefs concerning Natural Phenomena; Beliefs concerning 
Witches, Pigmies, Giants, and other Fabulous Beings. 



Reliefs; concerning Animals; 

Bears resemble People and like to Dance 

The Northern Mewuk say: 

Bears are like people. They stand up, they have 
hands, and when the hide is off, their bodies look 
like the bodies of people. Bears know a great deal. 
They understand the Mewuk language, and their 
hearing is so sharp that they hear a person a long 
way off and know what he says. 

Bears, like people, like to dance. Once an old 
Indian saw some bears dance in the forest. He 
saw Oo-soo'-ma-te the old she Grizzly Bear and a 
lot of little bears. The old she Bear leaned up 
against a young pine tree with her left hip and 
bent it down, and sang moo'-oo, moo'-oo. The 
little bears caught hold of the bent-over tree, hang- 
ing on with their hands over their heads, while they 
danced with their hind feet on the ground. 

How He-le'-jah the Cougar tiunts Deer 

The Northern Mewuk say : 

He-le'-jah the Cougar is a hunter. He hunts 
O-woo'-yah the Deer. He crawls toward it like a 
cat, without making any noise; and when near 
enough makes a big leap and catches it, or knocks 
it down with his long tail. When he has killed the 

209 



K\)t Batun of tfje l^Sorltr 



Deer he throws his long tail around it, and packs 
it off on his back. 

How TOO-LE'-ZE, THE TiMBER-WOLF HUNTS DEER 

The Northern Mewuk say: 

Too-le'-ze the Big Wolf is a hunter. Like He-le'- 
jah the Cougar or Mountain Lion he hunts Deer, 
but he hunts in a different way. He chases them 
like Choo'-koo the Dog but catches them by the 
throat with his claws, which he sinks deep into 
the sides of the throat. In the early morning he 
howls long howls. He used to be common here 
but now is rarely seen. 

TOO'-CHA-MO, THE StUMP, AND CHOO'-KOO HENG- 

il'-nah-as'-se, the Lost Dog 

The Northern Mewuk say: 

Too'-cha-mo the stump and Choo'-koo the dog 
are friends. When Choo'-koo is lost and does not 
know where his man has gone he goes to Too'- 
cha-mo and asks. Too'-cha-mo tells him which 
way to go to strike his man's trail; Choo'-koo goes 
and finds it, and no matter how far away his man 
is, he follows the trail right to him. 

The First Teeth go to Soo-wah-tah, the 
Gopher 

The Middle Mewuk of Tuolumne River say: 
When a child sheds its first teeth they should be 

210 



^resient Bap ilptfjs! 



saved and taken to Soo-wah-tah the Pocket Gopher, 
and carefully put into his hole. Then the second 
teeth will come quickly and grow to be strong and 
good. 

o-lel'-le the mysterious bird of the cold 
Springs 

The Southern Mewuk of Mariposa region say: 

Many people wear a Wep'-pah (amulet) around 
their necks to bring good luck and keep harm 
away. Some wear lucky stones, some lucky shells, 
some a forked feather-particularly the forked 
feather of a Bluejay, which is very lucky. 

But the luckiest feather in the world, and the 
luckiest thing in the world, is a feather from O-leV- 
le. O-lel'-le is a bird about the size of a Flicker, 
but no one ever had a good look at him. He lives 
in cold springs, down deep under the water, and 
sometimes makes the water bubble, and sometimes 
makes it muddy. He comes to the spring just at 
dark and dives down without stopping on top. In 
the morning just at daylight he comes up and jumps 
out of the water and flies away quickly, so it is 
very hard to see him. 

Sometimes, once in a great while, a person finds 
one of O-lel'-le's feathers at the spring. This makes 
the strongest Wep'-pah in the world, and the per- 
son who finds it wears it on a string around his 
neck as long as he lives and always has good luck. 

211 



^f)t laatDn ot tt)e WBiovlh 



SOO-KOO'-ME THE GREAT HORNED OWL 

The Middle Mewuk of Tuolumne River foot- 
hills say : 

When Soo-koo'-me the Great Horned Owl 
hoots, it means that someone is dying. He is him- 
self the Ghosts of dead people.^" 

[I was once asked by a Northern Mewuk if I had 
ever seen the broad belt of bony plates which sur- 
rounds the eyeball of the Great Horned Owl. On 
replying that I had, I was assured that these closely 
imbricating plates are the "finger nails all jammed 
tight together of the ghosts caught by the owl."] 

The Meadowlark, a Gossip and Trouble- 
maker 

The Olayome of Putah Creek say : 

Hoo-yu-mah the Meadowlark understands and 
speaks our language. He often makes disagreeable 
remarks; we often hear him say, "I see you are 
angry," and other mean things. 

Note. In the Ancient Myths it has already 
been shown that the Northern Me'-wuk and Wi'- 
pa tribes of Mewan stock, and the Pa'-we-nan tribe 
of Midoo stock, hold the Meadowlark responsible 
for the failure of dead people to rise on the third 
or fourth day and come to life again (see pages 

20 For additional matter on this subject see Beliefs concerning 
Ghosts, pages 217-221. Similar beliefs are held by other California 
tribes. 

212 



^esient ©ap Mv^^ 



55-56 and 132). This belief is widespread among 
the Mewan tribes and is held also by at least one 
Porno tribe -the 'Ham'-fo or Koi'-im-fo of Clear 
Lake. 

All the Mewan tribes, and many belonging to 
widely different stocks -including even the Washoo 
of Lake Tahoe and adjacent valleys east of the 
Sierra- class the Meadowlark among the bad birds. 
They say he talks too much and is a gossip and 
they do not like him. The Washoo call him i^^- 
soo'-te'-al-le and, like several other tribes, insist 
that he talks to them in their own language and 
always makes uncomplimentary remarks. He tells 
them that he sees right through them; that they 
are stingy and provide only food enough for them- 
selves; that they are dark on the outside only and 
under the skin are as white and mean as a white 
man, and so on. 

The Mariposa Mewuk say: 

If a person breaks a Meadowlark's egg it will 
rain. 

Ki'-Ki'-AH THE Mountain Bluejay 

The Middle Mewuk of Stanislaus River region 

say: 

Ki'-ki'-ah, the Crested Bluejay of the mountains, 
plants acorns so that oak trees come up almost 
everywhere. 

[Several other tribes mention the same habit 
which, by the way, is hardly a myth.] 

213 



trte Baton of tJje TOorUr 



Where the Ducks and Geese go to Breed 

The Hookooeko of Tomales Bay say : 

The home of Ducks and Geese is far up the 
coast in the cold country called Kon'-win, the 
North, which is on the other side of the sky. The 
way to this country lies between two high hills 
which continually go apart and come together, 
forming a sliding gateway which is ever opening 
and closing -the hills are never still.^^ 

The name of these sliding hills is Wal-le-kali- 
pah. 

In spring when the Ducks and Geese go north 
they pass between the Wal'-le-kah'-fah hills and 
make their nests and rear their young in the cold 
Kon'-win country beyond; in fall they come back 
through the same opening and bring their young 
with them. 

PO'-KO-MOO THE POISON SPIDER 

The Northern Mewuk say: 

Po'-ko-moo the small black spider with a red 
spot under his belly is poison.^" Sometimes he 
scratches people with his long fingers, and the 
scratch makes a bad sore. 



21 The gateway in this little story is of course the North Hole in 
the sky, which is always described as opening and closing with great 
rapidity, so that only the swiftest personages can shoot through. 

The JVal'-te-kah'-pah hills at the north opening are evidently the 
same as the Thunder Mountain of other tribes, which is always close 
by the north hole in the sk)', in the region of extreme cold. 

22 This is true. The name of the poison spider is Lathrodcctus 
mactens. 

214 



^regent ©ap iHptfjsi 



[All the tribes know that this spider is poisonous 
and some of them make use of the poison.] 

Where Koo'-tah the Money-clam came 

FROM 

The Olamentko of Bodega Bay say: 

Coyote-man brought Koo'-tah the big clam, from 
which pis'-pe the shell money is made, and planted 
it here at Bodega Bay."'' This is the place and the 
only place where the big clam was in the beginning. 
Wherever else you find it now, the seed came from 
here. The Tomales Bay people got their seed 
here. 



23 The large thick shell Bodega Bay clam from which shell 
money is made is Saxidomus giganteus. 

215 



Reliefs; concerning #f)os;t£{ anb tfje 
^ign of ©eatJ) 

Ghosts follow the Pathway of the Wind 

The Hookooeko of Nicasio and Tomales Bay say: 
When a person dies his Wal'-le^'* or Ghost goes to 
Hel'-wah the West, crossing the great ocean to 
Oo-td-yo'-me, the Village of the Dead. In making 
this long journey it follows hinnan mooka, the path 
of the Wind. Sometimes Ghosts come back and 
dance in the roundhouse; sometimes people hear 
them dancing inside but never see them. 

Three Birds scream to frighten the Ghosts 

The Southern Mewuk of the Chowchilla region 

say : 

After a person dies his Hoo'-ne or Ghost sets out 
toward the ocean. On the way it has to cross a 
broad river on a log. While it is crossing on this 
log, three birds scream to frighten it-Hek-ek'-ke 
the Quail, Ha-chah'-we the Barn Owl, and Hah'- 
jen-nah a small Heron. 

2'* In this connection it is interesting to observe that in the language 
of the related Otayome of Putah Creek, Bats are called IValle; while 
the same word in the language of the Mewan Valley tribes means 
Ocean. The word for ocean among the Northern Mewuk is tVallaiu ; 
among the Middle or Tuolumne Mewuk, Wattesmah. 

217 



^fje ©atun of tfje WiovHi 



If the Ghost is frightened and falls into the 
river it turns into a fish; but if it keeps on and 
crosses the log it continues westerly over the ocean 
and goes to the place where all the Ghosts live 
together, and never comes back. 

Ghosts may come back in Soo-koo'-me the Owl 

The Middle Mewuk of Tuolumne River say: 

When a person dies, Oo'leus the heart-spirit re- 
mains in the dead body for four days. During 
these four days everyone is quiet and the children 
are not allowed to run about or make a noise. On 
the morning of the fourth day the people sprinkle 
ashes on the ground over the buried basket of burnt 
bones -or over the grave if the corpse were buried 
instead of burned. On that day the heart spirit 
leaves the body in the invisible form of Hinnan 
Soos the Wind Spirit, or Soo-les'-ko the Ghost, and 
proceeds westward. That night it may come back 
in Soo-koo'-me the Owl, or in some other animal; 
so look out. 

Some Ghosts are good, others bad. At last they 
all go to the ocean and cross over on a long pole 
to the Roundhouse of the dead, where they remain. 

A Hole in the Nose saves turning into a Fish 

The Southern Mewuk of the Mariposa region say : 

If a person dies without a hole in his nose he 

will turn into a fish, but if the nose is perforated 

218 



^re£!Ent IBaj> iHptfjg 



for the kun-no-wah ^^ he will not turn into a fish. 
What good and bad Ghosts turn into 

The Northern Mewuk say: 

The heart-spirits or Ghosts {Soo-lek'-ko) of 
good Indians turn into Too-koo'-le the Great 
Horned Owl; those of bad Indians into Et-td'-le 
the Barn Owl, Yu'-kal-loo the Meadowlark, O- 
la-choo the Coyote, or Choo'-moo-yah the Gray 
Fox.^^ Whatever they turn into they continue to 
be forever - there is no change after that. 

The night after the Ghost leaves the body it may 
come back and do harm to someone -so it is well 
to look out. [My informant told me that the night 
after his wife's Ghost left her body it came bade 
while he was asleep and beat him severely.] 

Note. The Tribes of Midoo stock also believe 
in transmigration. The No-to'-koi-yo or North- 
eastern Midoo say that their ghosts go into the 
Great Horned Owl, while the Pf^'-w^'-Tzan or South- 
western Midoo say that when a person dies his 
spirit (oos) may go into any one of a number of 
things : it may turn into an Owl or Coyote, a Snake 
or a Lizard ; it may become a Whirlwind, or it may 

25 The kun-no-ivah is a short white rod of shell or stone worn in 
the nose by both men and women of this tribe. 

26 The Coyote and Fox are bad -they kill too much and make too 
much trouble; good Indians do not like them. Yu'-kal-loo the Meadow- 
lark is a bad bird; he is mean and is always saying disagreeable things. 

219 



W)t Baton of tte WBiovih 



go into the ground and become earth. Sometimes, 
but rarely, it goes off to a good place. 

Ghosts hide in Stumps and Whirlwinds 

The Northern Mewuk say: 

Sometimes when passing Too'-cha-mo the stump 
you hear a noise inside; it is Soo-lek'-ko the Ghost. 
You had better go right on, for if you stop he might 
do you harm. 

Whenever you see Poo'-ki-yu the Whirlwind 
whirling the dust around and around and carrying 
it up into the air you may know that Soo-lek'-ko 
the Ghost is inside, dancing and swinging round 
and round. You had better not go near it but keep 
away. 

Ghosts hunt for a big Animal in the Ocean 

The Mokalumne say: 

After a person dies and is buried the heart-spirit 
comes out and shakes itself to shake off the earth, 
and then sails away in the air and disappears- go- 
ing northwest to the ocean. This may happen on 
the fourth night, or at any time between the first 
and fourth. 

The Ghost goes to the ocean and enters the water 
and finds a large animal [probably a whale] whose 
breast it immediately lays hold of and sucks. If 
it does not take the breast of this animal it can not 
live in the ocean with the other Ghosts, but in from 
two to four days returns and reenters the body from 

220 



^rcsient ©ap iWptfjs! 



which it came, and comes back to life again. It 
then tells the old people of the beautiful things it 
saw in the ocean -flowers and fishes and animals. 

For a long time the people did not know where 
the Ul'-le or Ghosts went. After a while the Napa 
Indians told our people that they sometimes heard 
strange noises in the air overhead, usually in the 
evening or very early morning, sometimes at night, 
and more rarely in the daytime. The sounds were 
sometimes like singing, sometimes like crying, 
sometimes like calling or scolding- always high up. 
For a long time they did not know what these noises 
were, but finally some wise Indians found out that 
they were the Ghosts of people from the interior 
passing over on their way to the ocean. 

One of our people was a ' Half Doctor ' ; he knew 
much medicine and was a good dancer. Once, 
when some one died, the 'Half Doctor' made up 
his mind that he would find out about the Ghost. 
So after dark he went to the place and hid close to 
the grave and watched. In the night he saw some- 
thing like a person get up out of the ground and 
shake his head to shake the earth ofif, and then fly 
away quickly, disappearing at once. Nothing more 
was seen. 

Wah-tib'-sah the Sign of Death 

The Northern Mewuk of the Mokelumne River 
foothills say: 
When a person feels the inner side of the calf 

221 

13 



Wf)t ^abm of tfje WBovUi 



of his leg twitch, as if some one were poking it with 
his finger, it is a sure sign that within three days 
somebody is going to die, and he must take care 
that he is not the one. The twitching is done by 
the person's totem or guardian spirit, who comes 
and pokes his leg to warn him of the danger.^'' 

[My informant, the chief of a small rancheria, 
told me that he had been thus warned several times 
by Md'-ivd the Gray Squirrel, who was his totem, 
and that each time some one had died. He told me 
also that an old blind woman who lived in the 
rancheria, and whose totem was a Yellow-jacket 
wasp, had more than once saved his life by whis- 
pering to him just as he was going somewhere, that 
she had felt Wah-tib'-sah and he had better not 
go. Her totem friend, Mel'-ling-i'-yah the Yel- 
low-jacket, had come and poked her leg to warn her 
that somebody must die. He had always heeded 
her warning and stayed at home and was still alive, 
while some one else, in a neighboring rancheria, 
had died.] 



27 For remarks on the prevalence and significance of totemism 
among the Mewan tribes, see my article entitled "Totemism in Cali- 
fornia," American Anthropologist, vol. x, 558-561, 1908. 

222 



peliefsi concerning Jgatutal 
JPtienomena 

Thunder 

The Northern Mewuk near South Fork Cosumnes 

River say: 

Tim'-mel-le the Thunder is, or is like, Ti'-e-te 
the Valley Bluejay. He lives down below [west] 
in the San Joaquin Valley, where the clouds are. 
Sometimes he becomes angry and makes a great 
rumbling noise ; this noise is Tim'-mel-le the Thun- 
der.2« 

The Rainbow 

The Northern Mewuk say: 

Ku-yet'-tah the Rainbow comes to tell the people 
a baby is born. When anyone sees Ku-yet'-tah he 
knows that somewhere a new baby has come. Ev- 
erybody knows that. 

The Hookooeko of Nicasio and Tomales Bay say : 
Kah-chah the Rainbow is the bow of O'-ye the 
Coyote-man. 

The Earthquake 

The Oldyome of Putah Creek say : 

Under the earth is a great giant named He- 

28 For additional beliefs about Thunder, see First People stories, pages 
173-178; 199. 

223 



W)t Baton of tf)e tS23orlb 



wow'-wah-tin. When angry he shakes the earth, 
causing Yo'-wan-hew'-wah the Earthquake. 

Noise 

The Tuolumne Mewuk say: 

In the beginning all noise came from water- run- 
ning water. [Their word for shouting is Wah-kah- 
lah'-loo, derived from Wah-kah'-loo, river.] 

The Northern Mewuk also say: 

All noise came in the beginning from running 
water; the echo originally came from rapids or 
boisterous water. 

Other tribes say: 

Singing came from running water -the first 
song was sung by the creek. 

The Echo 

The Hookooeko of Nicasio and Tomales Bay say: 
Pe-tdn'-yah the Lizard with blue sides ^' lives 
everywhere in the rocks and hills and woods. 
When he hears a loud noise he talks back. This 
is Si-yu-kd-i the Echo; it is Pe-tdn'-yah talking 
back. 

The Oldyome of Putah Creek say: 

Loo-te'-nek'-kah the Echo is Pe-td'-le the blue- 
sided Lizard talking back. 

29 The blue-sided lizard meant is Sceloporus occidentalis, a common 
species in the coast region of California. 

224 



^resient ©ap iWptfig 



The Olamentko of Bodega Bay say: 
The Echo is Sah-kah'-te talking baclc. 

How THE World Grew 

The Northern Mewuk say: 

In the beginning the world was rock. Every 
year the rains came and fell on the rock and washed 
off a little; this made earth. By and by plants 
grew on the earth and their leaves fell and made 
more earth. Then pine trees grew and their needles 
and cones fell every year and with the other leaves 
and bark made more earth and covered more of 
the rock. 

If you look closely at the ground in the woods 
you will see how the top is leaves and bark and pine 
needles and cones, and how a little below the top 
these are matted together, and a little deeper are 
rotting and breaking up into earth. This is the 
way the world grew- and it is growing still. 



225 



peliefsi concerning Witt\)t^, ^igmieg, 
#iantg, anb otijer :f aibulous; 



How Witches Kill People 

The Hookooeko of Nicasio and San Rafael say: 

Our country is on the north side of San Francisco 
Bay and reaches from San Rafael to Tomales Bay. 
Before the white man came and destroyed us there 
used to be witches among the people. The people 
used to burn the dead. Sometimes after a burn- 
ing the witches would save the ashes and burnt 
bones (called me'-cham yem'-me-um) and pound 
them up fine in a stone mortar and use them to kill 
with. The witches had two ways of killing people. 
One way was to put the powdered bones and ashes 
on the windward side of the house or rancheria of 
the person they wished to harm. Then the wind 
would blow the fine dust over the enemy. Next 
day he would have a headache and feel sick, and 
every day grow worse until by and by he died. 

Another way was to take the hollow wing bone 
of a Turkey-buzzard and go to windward of the 
person to be injured. The witch then blew through 
the bone toward the person. The person soon had 
bad dreams and felt lonesome, and next day went 
crazy, and after a while died. 

227 



die Baton til ti)t WBioxHi 



With the right kind of a buzzard bone (called 
to'-kah) a witch could blow harm to a person 
from a distance as great as two miles. 

Pigmies and Water People 

The Hookooeko of Nicasio and Tomales Bay say: 
Se'-kah the Little Folk dwell in thick places in 

the dark redwood forest, where no people live. 

They are very small. Sometimes they make people 

crazy. 

Le'-wah ke'-lak the Water People live in the 

ocean, in a roundhouse under the water; sometimes 

they come up and show themselves. 

The Devil of San Rafael 

The Hookooeko of San Rafael say: 

Yu-ten me'-chah the Evil One lives in the hills 
just north of San Rafael; he travels about at night 
and sometimes comes and touches people when they 
are asleep, to frighten them. 

Ho-ha'-pe the River Mermaid 

The Southern Mewuk of Merced River foothills 

say: 

Some of the rivers are inhabited by Ho-ha'-pe, 
the River Mermaids or Water Women. The Ho- 
ha-pe have long hair and are beautiful to look 
at. They usually live in deep pools, and are known 
at several places in Wah-kal'-mut-tah (Merced 

228 



^resient Bap iHptfjsi 



River). In that part of the river which runs 
through Ah-wah'-ne (Yosemite Valley) they have 
been seen a number of times. 

One lives now lower down in the river, at the 
upper end of Pleasant Valley in the large round 
pool called Ow'-wal. In the early days two part- 
ners used to fish for salmon at Ow'-wal, one on 
each side of the pool; several times they saw Ho- 
hd'-pe. 

Another lives in the deep water at Wel'-le-to 
(on the Barrett ranch, a little below Pleasant Val- 
ley) . At this place a few years ago some Indians 
from Bear Valley and Coulterville came to catch 
salmon. They put their net in a deep place in 
the river, and when it was full of fish tried to pull 
it out, but could not, for it was stuck on the bot- 
tom. Ho-hd'-pe the Water Woman had fastened 
it to a rock, but the men did not know this. One of 
them went down to find where the net had caught, 
and to lift it up. While he was doing this Ho- 
hd'-pe put a turn of the net-rope around his big 
toe and he was drowned. Then several of the men 
had to go down to get him. After they brought 
up his body all of them saw Ho-hd'-pe in the pool 
below, and saw her long hair float out in the cur- 
rent. 

Note -The story of Ho-hd'-pe the River Mer- 
maid, varying more or less in details, reaches north 
at least to American River, where the Nissenan 

229 



Ctie Baton ot tfie ?!KKorlti 



(who call her Ho-sd'-pah) have the following 
version : 

Two maidens were walking along American 
River below the foothills when they heard a baby 
cry. They followed the sound and soon saw the 
baby lying on a sand bar in the edge of the river. 
One of them reached down to pick it up when it 
suddenly changed to Ho-sd'-pah the River Mer- 
maid, who, seizing the young woman, dragged her 
into the river. She cried out and her companion 
took hold of her arm and pulled and pulled as 
hard as she could to save her, but Ho-sd'-pah was 
the stronger and dragged her under the water and 
she was never seen again. 

The other maiden ran home to the village and 
told her people what had happened. She was so 
terribly frightened that her mind became affected 
and in a short time she died. 



230 



THE ROCK GIANTS 

Che-ha-lum'-che the Rock Giant of 

Calaveras County 

The Northern Mewuk say: 

Che-ha-lum'-che the Rock Giant carries on his 
back a big burden basket (che'-ka-la) which, like 
himself, is of rock. He lives in caves, of which 
there are two near Mountain Ranch or El Dorado 
in Calaveras County, one at Murphys, and one on 
Stanislaus River. 

Che-ha-lum'-che comes out only at night and 
wanders about seeking Mewuk [people] to eat. 
He prefers women; of these he catches and carries 
off all he can find. Sometimes he makes a crying 
noise, hoo-oo'-oo like a baby, to lure them. If they 
come he seizes them and tosses them into his big 
pack basket and carries them to his cave, where he 
eats them. In the basket is a long spike which 
pierces their bodies when they are thrown in, so 
they can not escape. 

In his caves are the remains of his victims - 
horns of deer and bones of people and different 
kinds of animals. 

Indians never throw their dead into caves. If 
they did, Che-ha-lum'-che would get them. Any 

231 



Vt^t Baton of tfje Wiovih 



man who would put a dead person in a cave would 
be killed by the other Indians.^" 

Oo'-LE THE Rock Giant of the Chowchilla 
Foothills 

The Southern Mewuk say: 

Far away in the west, in the place where the sun 
goes down, lived Oo'-le the Rock Giant. At night 
he used to come up into the foothills to catch peo- 
ple and eat them. 

LOO-POO-OI'-YES THE ROCK GlANT OF TAMALPAIS 

The Hookooeko of Nicasio and San Rafael say: 
A woman had a husband and two boy babies - 

30 Many human skulls and skeletons have been found in caves 
along the west slope of the middle Sierra. The presence of human 
remains in these caves has been interpreted to mean that the Indians 
now living in the region practise cave burial, or did practise it until 
recent times. This is an error. The Indians of this region, the Mewuk, 
burned their dead, and look with horror on the suggestion that they 
or their ancestors might ever have put their dead in caves. They ask: 
"Would you put your mother, or your wife, or your child, or any 
one you love, in a cave to be eaten by a horrible giant?" The idea is 
so abhorrent to them that the theory of cave burial must be abandoned 
as preposterous. 

The mytholog)' of the Mewuk does not admit of any migration 
but describes the creation of the people in the area they still inhabit. 
This, in connection with the fact that these Indians speak a language 
wholly different from any known in any other part of the world, 
proves that they have occupied the lands they now occupy for a very 
long period -a period which in my judgment should be measured 
by thousands of years. 

This argues a great antiquity for the cave remains, for they 
must be those of a people who inhabited the region before the Mewuk 
came -and this takes us back a very long way into the past. 

232 



o 




^regent ©ap iWptfjsf 



twins. The woman's brother killed her husband and 
the little boys did not know that they ever had a 
father. When they were big enough they went off 
every day to play by a big rock in the woods. They 
went always to the same place ; they liked this place 
and always went there. This was the very place 
where their father, when he was alive, used to go 
every day to sing, but the little boys did not know 
this -for they did not even know that they had 
ever had a father. 

One day the boys heard somebody say: "You 
come here every day just as your father used to." 
The voice came from the rock; it was the voice of 
Loo'-poo-oi'-yes ^^ the Rock Giant. Then the boys 
knew they had had a father. They went to the 
rock and saw long hairs sticking up. These hairs 
grew out of the nostrils of Loo'-poo-oi'-yes; the 
boys took hold of them and pulled them out. 

This made Loo'-poo-oi'-yes angry and he took 
a long hooked stick and tried to catch the boys to 
kill them. He was all rock except a place on his 
throat where he wore an abalone shell. The boys 
saw this and shot their arrows through it and killed 
him. When he died he fell to pieces; the pieces 
were rocks and scattered over the ground. Inside 
he was flesh like other people, but outside he was 
rock, except the place on his throat where the 
abalone shell was. 

31 The name Loo'-poo-oi'-yes means literally the old man of rock, 
from loo'poo rock, and oi'yes old man. 

235 



i;f)e Baton of tfje OTiorlti 



Ka'-lum-me the Rock Giant of Wennok 
Valley 

The Olayome of Putah Creek say: 

In a cave under the cliff on the east face of 
Oo'-tel-tal-lah pow'-we, a small mountain south- 
west of the south end of Wennok Lake in Lake 
County, dwells Kd'-lum-me the Rock Giant. He 
used to roam about nights, catching Indians and 
carrying them ofif to his cave to eat. He has not 
done this for some time. 



236 



Scientific i^ames; of tfje animals; 

FOR purposes of exact identification the scien- 
tific names of the mammals, birds, reptiles 
and a few other animals mentioned in the 
text are here given. Most of these were originally 
First People; they turned into animals at or about 
the time real people were created. 

The Indian names of the First People who 
turned into these animals are given at the beginning 
of each story. 

Mammals 

Antelope, Antilocapra americana 

Badger, Taxidea taxus neglecta 

Bear -See Black, Grizzly, and Cinnamon Bear 

Black Bear, Ursus americanus (black phase) 

Bobcat or Wildcat, Lynx fasciatus pallescens 

Cinnamon Bear, Ursus americanus (brown or 

red phase) 
Cougar, Felis hippolestes 
Coyote, Cants ochropus 
Deer, Columbia Blacktail, Odocoileus colum- 

bianus 
Elk, Cervus nannodes (California Valley Elk) 
Fox, See Gray Fox 
Gopher, T'^omomy^- several species 
Gray Tree Squirrel, Sciurus fossor 

237 



Cfte Jiaton of tfje WBotlh 



Grizzly Bear, Ursus horribilis calif ornicus 

Gray Fox, Urocyon californicus 

Kangaroo Rat, Perodipus streatori (of the Sierra 

foothills) 
Mountain Lion -See Cougar 
Raccoon, Procyon psora 
Skunk (large kind), Mephitis occidentalis 
Shrew, Sorex vagrans 
Timber-wolf, Canis 
Weasel, Putorius xanthogenys 
White-footed Mouse, Peromyscus gambeli 
Woodrat, Neotoma fuscipes streatori (of the 

Sierra foothills) 

Birds 

Barn Owl, Aluco pratincola 
Blackbird, Redwing, Agelaius (considered the 
male) and Brewer Blackbird, £M/)/ia^Mj (con- 
sidered the female) 
Bluejay, California, Aphelocoma californica 
Bluejay, Mountain or Crested, Cyanocitta stel- 

leri frontalis 
Condor, Gymnogyps californianus 
Crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos hesperis 
Dove, Zenaidura macroura carolinensis 
Eagle, Bald or White-headed, Haliceetus leuco- 

cephalus 
Eagle, Golden, Aquila chrysaetos 
Falcon, Peregrine or Duck-hawk, Falco pere- 
grinus anatum 

238 



^rESent ©ap iWpttsi 



Falcon, Prairie, Falco mexicanus 
Goose, Canada or Black-necked, Branta cana- 
densis 
Goose, Gray, Anser albifrons gambeli 
Grebe (small) or Helldiver, Podilymbus podi- 

ceps 
Heron, Great Blue, Ardea herodias 
Humming-bird - several species 
Mallard Duck, Anas platyrhynchos 
Meadowlark, Stumella neglecta 
Nuthatch, Sitta carolinensis aculeata 
Owl, Great Horned, Bubo virginianus pacificus 
Quail, California, Lophortyx californicus 
Raven, Corvus corax sinttatus 
Red-shafted Flicker, Colaptes cafer collaris 
Robin, Planesticus migratoriiis propinquus 
Sandhill Crane, Grus mexicana 
Sapsucker, Sphyrapicus ruber 
Screech Owl, Otus asio hendirei 
Spoonbill or Shoveler Duck, Spatula clypeata 
Turkey Buzzard, Cathartes aura septentrionalis 
Wren, Tule, Telmatodytes palustris paludicola 

Reptiles 

Frog, Rana draytoni 

Lizard, Black, Sceloporus biseriatus (black 

phase) 
Lizard, Blue-sided, Sceloporus occidentalis 
Lizard, Fire, Crotophytus silus 
Lizard, Little, Sceloporus graciosus 

239 



trije 3iaton of tift 'movlh 



Rattlesnake, Crotalus lucifer 
Toad, Bufo halophilus 
Turtle, Clemmys marmorata 

Insects and other Invertebrates 

Common Fly -several species 
Poison Spider, Lathrodectus mactens 
Yellowjacket Wasp, Vespa (several species) 
Money Clam (thick northern species), Saxidom- 

us gtganteus 
Money Clam (common species), Saxidomus 

nuttalli 
Abalone, Haliotis (several species) 



24<J 



Scientific iSameg of tjje Wxtt^ antr 
otjjer JPlantg 

Buckeye, Aesciilus calif ornica 

Buttonball bush, Cephalanthus occidentalis 

Cane or Reed, Phragmites vulgaris 

Cedar, Incense, Ltbocedrus decurrens 

Elderberry, Sambiicus glauca 

Madrone, Arbutus menziesi 

Manzanita, Arctostaphylos (several species) 

Oak, Black, Qucrcus californica 

Oak, Blue, Quercus douglast 

Oak, Valley or Water, Quercus lobata 

Pine, Digger, Pinus sabiniana 

Pine, Sugar, Pinus lambertiana 

Pine, Yellow, Pinus ponderosa 

Sage-herb, Artemisia ludoviciana 

Sycamore, Platinus racemosa 



241 



pitiliosrapfjp of California 

Barrett, S. A. "A Composite Myth of the Poino Indians," 

in the Journal of American Folk-lore (Boston, 1906), vol. 

xix, 37-51- 
BoscANA. "Chinigchinich" [Luiseno] in A. Robinson's Life 

in California (New York, 1846). 
Burns , L. M. " 'Digger' Indian Legends" [Scott Valley 

Shasta], in Land of Sunshine (Los Angeles, 1901), vol. xiv, 

130-134; 223-226; 310-314: 397-402. 
Chambers, G. A. [Fragment of a Mermaid story from the 

Chico Midoo], in the Journal of American Folk-lore (1906), 

vol. xix, 141. 
Clark, Galen. Indians of Yosemite Valley [Southern Me- 

wuk], (Yosemite Valley, Calif., 1904), chap, vii, "Myths 

and Legends." 
Curtin, Jeremiah. Creation Myths of Primitive America 

[Wintoon and Yana tribes], (Boston, 1898). 
- — — Achomawi Myths, edited by Roland Dixon, in Journal 

of American Folk-lore (1909), vol. xxii, 283-287. 
Denny, Melcena Burns. "Orleans Indian Legends" [Karok 

or Kworatem], in Out West (Los Angeles, Calif.), vol. xxv 

(1906), 37-40; 161-166; 268-271; 373-375; 451-454; vol. 

x.xvi (1907), 73-80; 168-170; 267-268. 
Dixon, Rol,4nd B. "Some Coyote Stories from the Maidu 



32 Ethnologists and others should take greater care in the identifica- 
tion of the personages mentioned in the myths. The value of many of 
the papers whose titles are here given is materially lessened by false 
identifications of the animal people. 

243 



mft Baton oi ttje l®orlJj 



Indians of California," in the Journal of American Folk-lore 
(1900), vol. xiii, 267-270. 
Dixon, Roland B. "Maidu Myths," in the American Muse- 
um of Natural History Bulletin (New York, 1902), vol. 
xvii, part ii, 33- 1 18. 

"System and Sequence in Maidu Mythology," in the Jour- 
nal of American Folk-lore (1903), vol. xvi, 32-36, 

"Mythology oi the Shasta-Achomawi," in the American 



Anthropologist (Washington, D.C., 1905), vol. vii, 607-612. 
"Achomawi and Atsugewi Tales," in the Journal of Amer- 



ican Folk-lore (1908), vol. xxi, 159-177. 
DuBois, Constance Goddard. "Mythology of the Die- 
guenos," in the Journal of American Folk-lore (1901), vol. 
xiv, 181-185. 

"The Story of Chaup : A Myth of the Diegueiios," in 

xht Journal of American Folk-lore (1904), vol. xvii, 217-242. 

"Mythology of the [Luiseno] jMission Indians," in the 



Journal of American Folk-lore, vol. xvii (1904), 185-188; 

vol. xix (1906), 52-60; 145-164. 
"The Raven of Capistrano" [Luisefio], in Out West 

(1907), vol. xxvi, 430-437; 537-544; vol. xxvii, 57-64; 152- 

157; 227-233; 343-351; 415-421; 523-531- 
- — "Religion of the Luiseno Indians of Southern California. 



Myths," in the California University publications on Ameri- 
can Archceology and Ethnology (Berkeley, Calif., 1908), 
vol. viii, 128-157. 

"The Spirit Wife - A Mission Myth (elaborated)," in 

the Southern Workman (Hampton, Va., 1908), vol. xxxvii, 
477-480; 512. 

'Ceremonies and Traditions of the Diegueno Indians" 



[with fragment of a Yuma creation myth], in the Journal of 
American Folk-lore (1908), vol. xxi, 228-236. 
Goddard, Pliny Earle. "Hupa Texts," in the California 
University publications on American Archceology and Eth- 
nology (1904), vol. i. 

244 



iiiljlioffrapljp ol California iWptijologp 

GoDDARD, Pliny Earle. "Lassik Tales," in the Journal of 
American Folk-lore (1906), vol. xix, 133-140. 

"Kato Texts. Translations," in the California University 

publications on American Archaeology and Ethnology (1909), 
vol. V, 183-238. 

Harrington, John Peabody. "A Yuma Account of Ori- 
gins," in the Journal of American Folk-lore (1908), vol. 
x-xi, 324-338. 

Hudson, J. W. "An Indian [Yokut] Myth of the San Joa- 
quin Basin," in the Journal of American Folk-lore (1902), 
vol. XV, 104-106. 

Johnston, Adam. [Fragment of a "Po-to-yan-te" Yokut 
Creation Mj'th] in H. R. Schoolcraft's Indian Tribes 
(Washington, D.C., 1854), vol. iv, 224-225. 

Kroeber, a. L. "Wishosk Myths," in the Journal of Ameri- 
can Folk-lore (1905), vol. xviii, 85-107. 

"Indian Myths of South Central California," ^^ in the 

California University publications on American Archceology 
and Ethnology (1907), vol. iv, 169-250. 

■ "Origin Tradition of the Chemehuevi Indians," in the 



Journal of American Folk-lore (1908), vol. xxi, 240-242. 

"Two Myths of the [Luiseno] Mission Indians of Cali- 
fornia," in the Journal of American Folk-lore (1906), vol. 
xix, 309-321. 

Notes on California Folk-lore. [A Luiseno Tale; Wiyot 



Folk-lore], in the Journal of American Folk-lore (1908), 

vol. xxi, 35-39. 
Kroeber, Henriette Rothschild. "Wappo Myths" [The 

Two Brothers ; The Coyote and the Frog] , in the Journal 

of American Folk-lore (1908), vol. xxi, 321-323. 
"California Indian Legends" [The Pleaides, a "Southern 

33 Mainly Yokut, but comprising also six important fragments of 
"Rumsien Costanoan" [Kah'-koon A-ches-ta], four second-hand frag- 
ments of "Pohonichi Miwok" [Southern Mewuk], and one "Gitanemuk 
Shoshonian" [Ke'-tah-na-mwa-kam or Tejon Serrano]. 

245 



Cf)e IBatpn of t^e ?II2Eorlb 



California" Myth; The Theft of Fire, a Yokut Myth], in 
Out West (1908), vol. xxviii, 66-69. 

Powers, Stephen. Tribes of California (Contributions to 
North American Ethnology, Washington, D.C., 1877), vol. 
iii. 

Contains myths of several tribes, very loosely rendered. 

RiED, Hugo. [Fragments of Gabrielino or Tong-va Myths, 
collected in 1852], in the Essex Institute Bulletin (Salem, 
Mass., 1885), vol. xvii, 15-17; 18-26. 

Sparkman, p. S. "A Luiseno Tale," in the Journal of Ameri- 
can Folk-lore (1908), vol. xxi, 35-36. 

Spencer, D. L. "Notes on the Maidu Indians of Butte Coun- 
ty, California" [The Buumo Myth - Battle of the Coyote 
and Bat], in the Journal of American Folk-lore (1908), vol. 
xxi, 244-245. 

Stewart, Geo. W. "Two Yokuts Traditions" [Fragments 
of Tache tales on the Origin of Fire, and the Turtle], in the 
Journal of American Folk-lore (1908), vol. xxi, 237-239. 

"A Yokuts [Wiktchumne] Creation Myth," in the Jour- 
nal of American Folk-lore (1906), vol. xix, 322. 

Waterman, Thomas. Analysis of the Mission Indian Crea- 
tion Story, in the American Anthropologist (1909), vol. xi, 
41-55- 
Note. The author's manuscript of the bibliography has been 

altered somewhat in form to agree with the form preferred by 

the publisher. 



246 



inbex 



3Jnbex 



Abalone shell: conceals vulner- 
able spot on throat of Rock 
Giant 235 ; covers He'-koo-las 
the Sun-woman 18, 201 ; scien- 
tific name 240. See also Ah'- 
wook. 

Acorn mush or soup: 35, 38, 118, 

•73. 192- 
Acorns: Vfomen pounding 35, 181; 

mother bear pounding 103, 106; 

pounded with stone pestles 125 ; 

planted by Blueja3-s 213. 
Aesculus calif ornica. Buckeye: 241. 

See also Oo'-noo. 
Agelaius, Red-winged Blackbird: 

238. 
Ah-ha'-Ie (Southern Mewuk for 

Coj'ote-man) : 27, 162, 165-167; 

how he stole the Sun 34-43 ; how 

he stole the Morning 44-46. See 

also Coyote-man. 
Ah'-ut (Southern Mewuk for 

Crow) : 162, 191-193. See also 

Crow. 
Ah-wahn'-dah, guardian of the 

fire and sun (Southern Mewuk 

for Turtle) : keeper of the Sun 

and fire 34, 39-40; keeper of 

the morning 44-46 ; sleeps with 

one eye open 39; falls asleep 

and loses the sun 40. 
Ah-wah'-ne (Southern Mewuk for 

Yosemite Valley) : 93, 229. See 

also Yosemite Valley. 
Ah-wet'-che (Hoolpoomne for 

249 



66, 83, 84. See also 
abalone shell: 18, 201, 



Crow): 
Crow. 

Ah'-wook, 
240. 

Al'-leh, the hand-game: 75-80. 

Alphabet used for Indian words: 
29. 

Aluco pratincola, Barn Owl: 238. 

American River: 54, 55, 230. 

Amulet: 211. See also Wep'-pah. 

Anas platyrhynchos, Mallard 
Duck: 239. See also Yow'-hah. 

Ang-e'-sa-wa'-pah, place on Mer- 
ced River: 169. 

Animals: origin 17, 171-172: be- 
liefs about 209-215. 

Anser albifrons gambeli, Gray 
Goose: 239. 

Antelope: 48, 49, 237. 

Antilocapra americana: 237. 

Aphelocoma californica, Califor- 
nia Valley Bluejay: 238. See 
also Ti'-e-te. 

Aguila chrysaetos, Golden Eagle: 
238. See also We-pe-ah'-gah 
and We'-wis-sool. 

Arhuius menziesi, Madrone tree: 
241. 

Arctosiaphylos, Manzanita: 241. 

Ardea herodias, Great Blue Her- 
on: 239. 

Artemisia ludoviciana. Sage-herb: 
136, 159, 241. 

Aw'-klm, place in upper foothills 
between Middle and South 



Zf)t ©atun of tf)e TOorlb 



Forks Cosumnes River (called 
Aukum by whites) : 58. 

Badger (animal) : 237. 

Badger-woman: preeminent as a 
digger 23, 119; outwits His'-sik 
the Skunk 21, ii6, 119; wife of 
Coyote-man 134, 136. See also 
O-hul'-le and Too'-wik, 

Bald Eagle. See White-headed 
Eagle: 126-128, 238. 

Bald Rock, place in Tuolumne 
foothills near Soulsbyville: 60. 

Barn Owl: 217, 219, 238. See al- 
so Ha-chah'-we and Et-ta'-le. 

Basket: for cooking 22, 35; for 
burnt bones 218. 

Beads. See Shell Money. 

Bear and Fawns: 102-112 (pic- 
ture 105). 

Bear, Cinnamon: 48, 49, 237. See 
also Sahk'-mum-chah. 

Bear, Grizzly: 23, 162, 199; helped 
make mortar holes in rock 125 ; 
helped make people 55; fondness 
for dancing 209; killed by Ah'- 
ut the Crow 192; resembles peo- 
ple 209; kills the Mother Deer 
103, in; scientific name 238. 
See also Koo'-le, O-hum'-mah-te 
and Oo-soo'-ma-te. 

Bear Valley: 229. 

Blackbird: one of the Underworld 
People 195; name 238. 

Bluejay: forked feather lucky 211 

Bhiejay, Crested or Mountain: 213, 
238. 

Bluejay, California or Valley: 223, 
238. 

Bobcat or Wildcat: 92, 93, 237. 
See also To-lo'-mah. 

Bodega Bay Indians: survivors 24; 



myths 152, 156, 158-160, 215, 225. 
See also Olamentko. 

Bower Cave, scene of mytli: 31, 
93. See also Oo'-tin. 

Branta canadensis, Canada Goose: 
239. See also Goose, Canada. 

Bubo virginianus pacificus, Great 
Horned Owl: 239. 

Buckeye tree, in which fire is pre- 
served for the people: 19, 33, 
53. (>lt 9°. 151; scientific name 
241. See also Oo'-noo. 

Bufo halophilus, Toad: 240. See 
also Ol'-lus muk-ki'-e. 

Burnt bones of dead: 227. 

Buttonball bush: arrow 182; scien- 
tific name 241. 

Buzzard. See Turkey Buzzard. 

California tribes stationary, not 
nomadic: 24. 

Cane or Reed: 241. 

Canis ochropus, Coyote: 237. See 
also Coyote-man. 

Cathartes aura, Turkey Buzzard: 
239. See also Turkey Buzzard. 

Caves, inhabited by Wek'-wek's 
sister 191; by Rock Giants: 231- 
236. 

Cedar, incense {Lihoccdrus) : 53, 
241. 

Cephalanthus occidentalis. Button- 
ball bush: 241. 

Cervus nannodes, California Val- 
ley Elk: 237. 

Cha'-ka (Olamentko for Tule- 
wren) : shot out the Sun 21, 152- 

153- 
Cha'-kah (Hoolpoomne for Chief) : 

87. 
Cha-poc'-kah-lah (Southern Me- 
wuk for Blackbird) : 195. 



250 



3nliex 



Charcoal: used by Raven to make 
himself black 93 ; used by Too'- 
le the Evening Star to make him- 
self black 98. 

Chaw'-se, mortar holes in rocks: 
125 (picture 123). 

Che'-ha-lum'-che, the Rock Giant 
of Calaveras County: 231-232; 
catching people to eat 231 (pic- 
ture 233). 

Che'-ka-la, burden or pack bas- 
ket: 231. 

Chik'-chik, small bird: 171. 

Choo'-hoo (Hoolpoomne for Tur- 
key Buzzard) : 66, 83, 84. See 
also Turkey Buzzard. 

Choo'-koo (Northern Mewuk for 
Dog) : 210. 

Choo'- koo heng - il'- nah - as'- se 
(Northern Mewuk for Lost 
Dog) : 210. 

Choo'-mat-tuk, people to south: 64. 

Choo'-moo-yah (Northern Mewuk 
for Gray Fox) : 219. See also 
Gray Fox. 

Choo-ta-tok'-kwe-lah (Southern 
Mewuk for Red-headed Sap- 
sucker) : 162, 188 

Chowchilla Mewuk: 34, 44, 45, 
217, 232. 

Chuk-chan'-se (Chukchansy), a 
Yokut tribe: 44. 

Cinnamon Bear: 48, 49. 

Clam Shell Money: 215. 

Clear Lake, Lake County: 138, 143, 

144. 145, 213- 

Clemmys marmorata. Turtle: 240. 

Colaptes cafer collaris, Red-shaft- 
ed Flicker: 239. 

Condor (Wek'-wek's father) : i8, 
48, 49; Hoolpoomne story 66-86; 
his wife a rock 67; scientific 



name 238. See also Mol'-luk. 

Corvus hrachyrhynclios hesperis, 
Crow: 238. See also Crow. 

Cosumnes River: 24, 58, 223. 

Cougar: 23, 237. See also He-le'- 
jah. 

Cougar-man or Mountain Lion: a 
great hunter 20, 23 ; how he 
hunts deer 209 ; a chief of the 
First People 92, 93-99, no, in; 
husband of Grizzly Bear-woman 
and Raccoon-woman 19; off- 
spring became people 19, 115; 
transformed into Cougar (ani- 
mal) 23; killed by Ah'-ut the 
Crow, 162, 192. See also He- 
le'-jah. 

Coyote: 87, 136, 237; spirits of bad 
Indians turn into 219. 

Coyote-man, an early Divinity us- 
ually regarded as Creator: 17, 
18; magician or witch doctor 
35, 146; came from west across 
ocean 21, 203; came from float- 
ing stump, 71 ; made flood to 
put out fire 21 ; influence usual- 
ly for good 18 ; diversit\' of 
names 27 ; discontented with 
cold and darkness 35; searches 
for better countrj' 35; discovers 
Foothills People and fire 35; 
turns into foothills people 35, 
39: tells Chief To-to'-kan-no 
about fire 38; turns into oak 
limb 39, 45; how he stole the 
fire and sun 34-43 ; how he stole 
the morning 44-46 ; how he put 
out Sah'-te's fire 147; brings the 
sun to Valley People 42 ; brings 
the morning to We'-wis-sool 46; 
makes the sun go round 42 ; 
springs through hole in sky 165 ; 



251 



tKfjc ©atun of ti)c Wiotlh 



turns feathers into people 84- 
87, 166-167, 148-149, 204-205 ; 
turns sticks into people 159; calls 
Ah-wahn'-dah by wishing 39; 
puts Ah-wahn'-dah to sleep by 
wishing 42 ; unable to find fire 
48, 49; tries to swallow fire 53; 
sends Hummingbird for fire 89, 
90, 153 ; puts fire in buckeye 
tree 90, 151; boastful 18, 135; 
selfish 18; made the world 203; 
he and Lizard-man made the 
world and people 59, 61 ; quar- 
rels with Lizard-man 59, 61 ; 
quarrels with Wek'-welc 157; 
stands guard at roundhouse 127 ; 
helps bury Lo'-wut, Wek'-wek's 
wife 128 ; turns into furry hunt- 
ing animal (real Coyote) 87, 
136; grandfather and compan- 
ion of Wek'-wek 71-90, 204; 
plants elderberry tree 73, 204; 
grieves over death of Wek'-wek 
77; plays handgame with giant 
Ke'-lok 79-81; kills Ke'-lok 81; 
brings Wek'-wek back to life 
81; catches three birds for 
feathers 83; gives every place 
its name 87, 149; tries to fell 
oak but fails 135; beaten by 
Wek'-wek 135-136; whips his 
wife the Badger-woman 136; 
lives with grandson Wek'-wek 
at Tu'-le-yo'-me 139-151; makes 
flood 145, 157; sends shrew-mice 
for the fire 149-150; plants 
buckeye, elderberrj- and oak 
204; takes the people across 
ocean and back after the flood 
157; catches Ko-to'-lah the Frog- 
woman and finds her his wife 
204. See also Ah-ha'-le, Kat'- 



wah, Os-sa'-le, O-la'-choo, O- 
la'-nah, O-let'-te, Ol'-Ie, O'-leh, 
O'-ye, and Yawm. 

Coyote Valley, on Putah Creek: 139. 

Crane, Sandhill: loud penetrating 
voice 23 ; chief of Valley Peo- 
ple 34, 35-43; mother of Lo'-wut 
126-128 ; chief of Underworld 
People 162, 195-196; tries to kill 
Wek'-wek and fails 195-196 ; sci- 
entific name 239. See also To- 
to'-kol, To-to-kon, and To-to'- 
kan-no. 

Creation myths: 54-61, 66-87, 115; 
creation of real people 19; from 
clay 19; from feathers 19-20, 
86-87, I4^"'49> 204-205 ; from 
sticks 159. 

Creator, the (Coyote-man) : 18. 
See also Coyote-man. 

Crotalus lucifer, Rattlesnake: 24c. 

Crotophytus silns, Fire Lizard: 
239. See also O-wah'-to. 

Crow: his fire stolen 21-22, 138, 
149-150; caught by O-let'-te 83- 
84; nephew of Wek'-wek 162, 
191-193; scientific name 238. See 
also Ah'-ut, Ah-wet'-che, and 
Kah'-kah-te. 

Cyanocitta stelleri frontalis, Crest- 
ed Mountain Blue] ay: 238. See 
also Ki'-ki'-ah. 

Darkness: universal in the begin- 
ning 18, 45, 49, 61, 153. 

Dead, village of: 217. 

Dead people: rising on third or 
fourth day 19, 132, 196, 218; 
Lizard-man's desire to restore to 
life 55: return to life prevented 
by Meadowlark-man 19, 55, 132, 
212; may turn into fish 218; 



252 



Snbcx 



ashes and burnt bones 227. 

Death: customs 218; sign of 221- 
222. 

Death of: first Indian 55; Ho'-ho 
187; Ke'-lok 81; Koo'-choo 187; 
Loo'-poo-oi'-yes 232; Lo'-wut 
126-132; Mother Deer 103, iii; 
Oo-wel'-lin 170; Wek'-wek 77, 
196; Yel'-lo-kin 165; Yi'-yil 
185-186. 

Deer, Columbia Blacktail: 237. 

Deer: first on west side of moun- 
tains [Sierra Nevada] 94-95; 
hunted by Kah'-kool the Raven 
94-97 ; hunted by Too'-le the 
Evening Star 94-95; how hunt- 
ed by Cougar 209 ; how hunted 
by Wolf 210; scientific name for 
237. 

Deer, Mother: 102-111, 198-199. 
See also Koo-la'-is Ka'-sum, O- 
woo'-yah and Ut-too'-yah. 

Deming, Edwin W., artist: 29. 

Devil of San Rafael: 22S. 

Distribution of Mewan tribes: 24; 
map 25. 

Divinities of the First People: 17, 
18. See also Coyote-man and 
Wek'-wek. 

Doctor birds: 67, 89. 

Doctors, Witch: 35, 128, 179, 188. 

Dog (Choo'-koo) : 210. 

Dog, Lost: 210. 

Dove: swiftness 23, 48, 49, 162, 
180-189; scientific name 238. 
See also Hoo-loo'-e. 

Duck, Mallard 162, 179-189. See 
also Yow'-hah. 

Duck, Spoonbill 126-128. See al- 
so Soo'-choo-koo. 

Duck Hawk or Falcon 27. See al- 
so Wek'-wek. 



Ducks: why they have flat feet 
184; go north beyond sky to 
breed 214. 

Eagle. See Golden Eagle and 
White-headed Eagle. 

Earth: how it grew 225. 

Earthquake: 223-224. 

Echo; Lizard-man talking back 21, 
224, 225 ; boisterous water 224. 
See also Si-yu-ka-i, Loo'-te-nek'- 
kah, and Sah-kah'-te. 

Elderbeny tree: planted by Coy- 
ote-man 73, 204; purchased by 
Wek'-wek 72; ceremonial use 
20; use for flute and clapper 
sticks 20, 49, 52; source of music 
20, 68, 73 ; source of medicine 
and food 73; source of fire 136; 
scientific name 241. See also 
Lah'-pah and Lap'-pah. 

El Dorado, Calaveras Countj-: 
Giant caves 231. 

Elk: one of the Valley People 48, 
49; hunted by Yu'-wel n6-n8; 
scientific name 237. See also 
Hah-ki'-ah and So'-koi. 

E'-non-na-too'-ya, last survivor of 
Wi'-pa tribe: 126. 

Et-ta'-le, the Barn Owl: ghosts of 
bad Indians turn into 219, 238. 

Euphagus cyanocephalus. Brewer 
Blackbird: 238. 

Evening Star, a chief of the First 
People: 92, 93-99. See also 
Too'-le. 

Evil One: 228. See also Yu'-ten 
me'-chah. 

Evolution of man from offspring 
of Cougar-man with Grizzly 
Bear-woman and Raccoon-wo- 
man: 19, 115. 



253 



Zf)t Baton of tf)c IMotlh 



Falco mexicanus, Prairie Falcon: 
239. 

Falco feregrinus anatum, Duck 
Hawk: 238. 

Falcon, Peregrine or Duck Hawk: 
238. 

Falcon, Prairie: 239. 

Falcon-man (Coyote-man's grand- 
son). See Wek'-wek. 

Fawns: The Bear and the Fawns 
102-in (picture ro5). 

Feather River: 55. 

Feathers, transformed into Indian 
People: 19-20, 84-87, 146-149, 
167, 204-205 ; transformed into 
trees and other plants 166-167; 
transformed into Wek'-wek 203- 
204 ; sacredness 20 ; fear or rev- 
erence for 20; stuck on arms and 
body for flight 174; forked 
feather lucky 211. 

Fetis Iiippolestes, Cougar or Moun- 
tain Lion: 237. See also He- 
le'-jah. 

Fingers, given by Lizard: 55, 59, 
61, 115. 

Fire (or sun), a primordial heat 
and light giving substance: 18, 
35; preserved in buckeye tree 
19, 33. 53. 63. 90. 151; pre- 
served in incense cedar 53; 
transformed into Sun by Robin 
33; shot up and became Sun 
53; theft of fire 19; stolen by 
Robin 33; by Coyote-man 39-40, 
45-46; by little Mouse 49-53, 
62; by Hummingbird 89-90, 153- 
154; by Shrew brothers 149-151; 
a weapon to pursue enemies 19; 
pursues Wek'-wek and others 
144, 182-183; made from elder- 
berry and sage herb 136; made 



by Ke'-lok 76, 80; made by 
Doctor birds 67 ; of Star Wo- 
men 89 ; of Grebes 148. See al- 
so Morning and Sun. 

Fire, Keeper or guardian: 18-19, 
48, 49. See also Ah-wahn'-dah. 

Firefly or fire bug, origin: 22, 150. 

Fire-lizard: 19, 162, 181-182, 189; 
scientific name 239. See also 
O-wah'-to. 

First People, curious beings who 
lived before man was created: 
17, 18; transformed into animals 
or objects 18, 43, 132, 171 ; char- 
acteristics perpetuated in final 
form 22-24; helped make mor- 
tar holes 125; stories 31-205. See 
also Hoi-ah'-ko. 

Flame (Oo'-loop) : 145. 

Flicker, Red-shafted: 48, 49, 110- 
112; meaning of red on wings 
and tail 21, 49; scientific name 
239. See also Te-wi'-yu. 

Flint fire rock: 189. iS^^ also Hos- 
sok'-kil-wah. 

Flint knives: 95, 

Flood: belief of Irmeko tribes 21; 
made by Coyote-man 21, 145, 
157; Wek'-wek saved from 156- 
158; water subsides 204. 

Flute of elderberry wood: 20, 49, 
50, 53, 61, 62. See also Loo'- 
lah. 

Flute-player (White-footed Mouse) 

+8, 49-52- 

Fly: 162, 170. See also Oo'-choom. 

Foothills Country: 34 (picture 37). 

Foothills People: 35, 36, 39, 40, 43. 

Fox, Gray: great hunter 20, 23, 
93; hunts elk for His'-sik 116- 
118; kills too much 219; spirit 
of bad Indians may turn into 



254 



Sntiex 



219. See also Choo-moo'-yah 

and Yu'-wel. 
Fresno Creek: 24. 
Frog-woman: 23, 204; scientific 

name 239. See also Ko-to'-lah. 

Geese: where go to breed 214; 
scientific names 239; pictures 

147, 175- 

Ghosts (or spirits of dead; often 
called heart spirit) : beliefs con- 
cerning 217-221 ; leave body on 
fourth day 218; become Great 
Homed Owl 212, 219 ; follow 
pathway of wind 217 ; may come 
back and harm some one 217, 
219; go west to village of Dead 
217; go west to ocean 220; may 
fall into water 218 ; birds scream 
to frighten 217; some good, some 
bad, 218; what they turn into 
219; hide in stumps 220; In 
whirlwind 219, 220; come out 
of grave 221. See also Hoo'-ne, 
Soo-lek'-ko, Soo-les'-ko and Ul'-le. 

Giants, beliefs concerning: 75-81, 
231-236. 

Giant, Earthquake: 223-224. See 
also He-wow'-wah-tin. 

Giant, North: 66, 75-81. See also 
Ke'-Iok and Oo-wel'-lin. 

Giants, Man-eating: 162-167, 169- 
171, 231. See also Che-ha-lum'- 
che, Oo-wel'-lin and Yel'-lo-kin. 

Giants, Rock: 19, 231-236. 

Golden Eagle: chief of Valley 
People 44, 48, 49. 60; cries be- 
cause of darkness 45; chief of 
Foothills People 162-167; sci- 
entific name 238. See also We'- 
pi-ahk, We-pl-ah'-gah and We'- 
wis-sool. 



Goose, Canada: 138, 142, 239. 

See also Lah'-kah. 
Goose, Gray: 126-132, 239. See 

also Lo'-wut. 
Gopher, Pocket: 210-211, 237. See 

also Soo-wah-tah. 
Grasses, made from feathers: 167 
Gray Fox, great hunter: 20, 23, 

92, 93, 116-118; Ghosts of bad 

Indians may turn into, 219; 

scientific name 238. See also 

Choo-moo'-yah and Yu'-wel. 
Gray Squirrel: 222, 237. 
Great Homed Owl. See Owl, 

Great Horned. 
Grebe: 138, 148, 156-157, 239. 

See also Hoo-poos'-min and 

Pe'-leet. 
Grizzly Bear. See Bear, Grizzly. 
Grizzly Bear Woman: 54; in the 

Bear and the Fawns 102-112; 

wife of Mountain Lion 19, 114, 

115; offspring became people 19; 

transformed into Grizzly Bear 

(animal) 23. See also Oo- 

soo'-ma-te and O-hum'-ma-te. 
Ground Squirrel, Citellus beeclieyi: 

172. 
Grus mexicana. Sandhill Crane: 

239. 
Guardian of the fire or sun: 18- 

19, 48, 49. See also Ah-wahn'- 

dah. 
Gymnogyps califormanus, Condor: 

238. See also Mol'-luk. 

Ha-chah'-we (Southern Mewuk 
for Barn Owl): 217. See also 
Barn Owl. 

Ha-cha'-nah, myth told at: 114. 

Hah'-jen-nah (Southern Mewuk 
for a small Heron) : 217. 



255 



Wi)t Baton of tfie Wiotlti 



Hah-ki'-ah (Northern Mewuk 
for Elk): 48, 49. See also 
Elk. 

Hail storm: 18, 23, 60, 63. See 
also Sah'-win-ne. 

Half Doctor: 221. 

Halideetus leucocephalus, Bald or 
White-headed Eagle: 238. See 
also Ho'-pah. 

Haliotis, Abalone: 240. 

Hal'-loo-zoo (Northern Mewuk for 
Antelope) : 48, 49. See also An- 
telope. 

'Ham'-fo (a Pomo tribe at Clear 
Lake) : belief that Meadowlark 
prevented immortality 213. 

Hand-game: 22, 75-80. 

Han-na'-boo (Hoolpoomne and 
Wipa for roundhouse) : 127, 131 ; 
Ke'-lok's 75, 79. See also Round- 
house. 

Haw'-wut (Hoolpoomne for shell 
money) : 72. 

Heart spirit: 218, 219. See also 
Ghosts. 

Heat and light giving substance: 
18. See also Fire, Morning, and 
Sun. 

Hek-ek'-ke (Southern Mewuk for 
Valley Quail) : 217. See also 
Quail. 

He'-koo-las the Sun-vpoman: i8, 
200; brilliancy due to coat of 
abalone 21, 201. 

He-le'-jah (Cougar or Mountain 
Lion man) : a great hunter 20, 
23 ; a chief of the First People 
92, 93-99, no, in; how he 
hunts deer 209; how his children 
became people 114, 115; killed 
by Ah'-ut the Crow 162, 192; 
scientific name 237. 



Hell-diver: 138, 148, 239. See al- 
so Hoo-poos'-min. 

Hel'-wah (Hookooeko for west): 
217. 

Heron, Great Blue: 195, 239. See 
also Wah'-ah. 

Heron, small: 217. See also Hah'- 
jen-nah. 

He'-sah-duk, people to east: 64. 

He-wow'-wah-tin, giant who caus- 
es earthquakes: 223-224. 

Hi'-kaht, a great chief: 55, 56. 

Hik-ka'-nah, place on Merced Riv- 
er: 169. 

Hinnan-mooka, the path of the 
Wind: 217. 

Hinnan-Soos, the Wind Spirit: 218. 

His'-sik (Southern Mewuk for 
Skunk): 21, 116-120; terrible 
scent 117, 120; greed 118; a 
great dancer 117, ii8, 119-120; 
is killed 120. 

Hittell, Charles J., artist: 29. 

Ho-ha'-pe (Mermaids or Water 

. Women) : 228-230. See also 
Hoo-soo'-pe, Ho-sa'-pah, and 
Mermaids. 

Ho'-ho (Southern Mewuk for Tur- 
key Buzzard) : 162, 184-187. See 
also Turkey Buzzard. 

Hoi-ah'-ko, the First People: 54, 
55, 125, 172; Hoi-ah'-ko tales of 
Southern Mewuk, 162-197; 
transformation into animals 17, 
18, 87, 171. See also First Peo- 
ple. 

Hoi'-poo, Captain: 146. 

Hok'-ke-hok'-ke: 184. 

Hol-luk'-ki (Hoolpoomne for Star- 
people) : 68. See also Star-peo- 
ple. 

Hoo'-a-zoo (Northern Mewuk for 



2S6 



3itiiex 



Turkey Buzzard) : 48, 49. See 
also Turkey Buzzard. 

Hoo'-koo-e'-ko tribe, north of San 
Francisco Bay: 18 ; awe of feath- 
ers 20; survivors 24. Myths: 
theft of fire 90; He'-koo-las the 
Sun-woman 201 ; how O'-ye 
discovered his wife 202-205 ; 
where Ducks and Geese go 214; 
beliefs as to Ghosts 217; as to 
Echo 224; as to Rainbow 223; 
as to Witches 227; as to Pig- 
mies and Water People 228 ; the 
Devil of San Rafael 228 ; the 
Rock Giant of Tamalpais 232. 

Hool (Pawenan for Meadowlark- 
man) : 55, 56. See also Mead- 
ow! ark-man. 

Hoo-loo'-e (Northern and South- 
em Mewuk for Dove) : 48, 49, 
162, 180-189; swiftness 23. See 
also Dove. 

Hool-poom'-ne tribe : location 66 ; 
story of creation 66-90. 

Hoo'-ne (Southern Mewuk for 
ghost) : 217. See also Ghosts. 

Hoo-poos'-min brothers (Grebes) : 

138, 146. See also Grebe. 
Hoo-soo'-pe (Hoolpoomne for Mer- 
maids) : 66, 81. See also Mer- 
maids. 

Hoo'-yah, shell beads or money: 
143, 145, 185, 187. See also 
Shell money. 

Hoo-yu'-mah (Tuleyome or Ola- 
yome for Meadowlark) : 138, 

139, 212-213. See also Mead- 
owlark. 

Ho'-pah (Wipa for White-headed 
Eagle) : 126-128 ; lover of Wek'- 
wek's wife 127. See also White- 
headed Eagle. 



Hornitos, place in Mariposa foot- 
hills: 116. 

Ho-sa'-pah (Nissenan for River 
Mermaid) : 230. See also Ho- 
ha'-pe, Hoo-soo'-pe, and Mer- 
maid. 

Hos-sok'-kil-wah (Southern Me- 
wuk for white flint fire rock) : 
189. 

Hul'-Iuk mi-yum'-ko (Hoolpoom- 
ne for Star-women) : 66, 68, 72, 
89. See also Star-women. 

Hummingbird: 27, 48, 66; swift- 
ness 23 ; significance of red chin 
21, 89-90, 153-154; sent to steal 
the fire 53, 89, 90, 153. See al- 
so Koo-loo'-loo, Koo-loo'-pe, 
Koo-loo'-pis, and Le'-che-che. 

Hunters, of First People: 20. See 
also Ah'-ut, He-le'-jah, Kah'- 
kool, and Yn'-wel. 

Immortality prevented by Mead- 
owlark-man: 19, 55-56, 132. 

Indian Gulch, place in Mariposa 
foothills: 116. 

In-ne'-ko tribes (north of San 
Francisco Bay) : 21. 

Jealousy op Wek'-wek: 126-132. 

Kah'-chah (Hookooeto for Rain- 
bow) : 223. 

Kah'-kah-loo (Northern Mewuk 
for Ravens) : 100, loi. 

Kah'-kah-te (Tuleyome for 

Crow): 21, 138, 149-150. See 
also Crow. 

Kah'-kool (Southern Mewuk for 
Raven) : hunting deer 92-99 
(picture 95). See also Raven. 

Kah'-loo the Thunder crash: 178. 



257 



tEfte Baton of tlje Wiotlh 



Kah-wah'-che (Northern Mewuk 
for stone pestle) : 125. 

Ka'-lum-me, the Rock Giant of 
Wennok Valley: 236. 

Kangaroo Rat woman: transform- 
ed into Kangaroo Rat 23 ; Ea- 
gle's wife 162, 163; scientific 
name 23S. See also Tu'-pe. 

Kat'-wah, new name given Os- 
sa'-le (Coyote-man) when he 
fell from grace: 60, 63. See 
also Coyote-man. 

Keeper of the Fire or Sun: 18-19, 
34> 39-40, 48, 49. 

Keeper of the Morning: 45. See 
also Ah-wahn'-dah. 

Ke'-Iok, North Giant: 19, 66, 75-81, 
89 ; hurling hot rocks at Wek'- 
wek (picture) 77; kills Wek'-wek 
79; killed by Coyote-man 81. 

Ki-ki'-ah (Middle Mewuk for 
Crested Bluejay) : 213. 

Kingbird: 184. See also Tap- 
pitch'-koo-doot. 

Kis'-soo (Southern Mewuk for 
Sword-grass) : 167. 

Koi'-im-fo (a Clear Lake Porno 
tribe) : 213. See also 'Ham'-fo. 

Koi'-maw (Pawenan for Rattle- 
snake) : 56. 

Kok'-kol (Hoolpoomne for Rav- 
en) : 66, 83-84. See also Raven. 

Kol (Tuleyome for tule) : 140. 

Konokti, Mountain; 145. 

Kon'-win (Hookooeko for the 
North) : 214. 

Koo'-choo, a Chief of the South 
People: 162, 184; burns Yi'-yil 
185-186; burnt by Wek'-wek 
187. 

Kook'-si-u (Middle Mewuk for 
feather blanket) : 62. 



Koo-la'-is ka'-sum, the Mother 
Deer: 198, 199. See also Moth- 
er Deer. 

Koo'-le (Hookooeko for Bear) : 
198, 199. 

Koo-loo'-loo (Hoolpoomne for 
Hummingbird): 27, 66; stole 
the fire 89 ; flame mark under 
chin 89. See also Humming- 
bird. 

Koo-loo'-pe (Olamentko for Hum- 
mingbird): 27, 152-154. See al- 
so Hummingbird. 

Koo-loo'-pis (Hookooeko for Hum- 
mingbird) : 66, 90. See also 
Hummingbird. 

Koo-loo'-te, place now occupied by 
town of Sonora: 192. 

Koo'-tah, the Money Clam: 215, 
240. 

Kosh-sho'-o, a Yokut tribe: 44. 

Ko-to'-lah (Hookooeko for Frog- 
woman, wife of Coyote-man) : 
23, 204. 

Kow'-woo wood (buttonball ar- 
row) : 182. 

Kun-no'-wah, nose rod of shell or 
stone (Southern Mewuk) : 219. 

Kutch'-um (Wipa for sage herb) : 
136. 

Ku-yet'-tah (Northern Mewuk for 
Rainbow): 223. See also Rain- 
bow. 

La'-hah (Southern Mewuk for 
wild cane or reed) : 188. 

Lah'-kah (Tuleyome for Canada 
Goose): 138, 140, 141 (picture 
147). See also Goose, Canada. 

Lah'-mah (Tuleyome for round- 
house) : 143. 

Lah'-pah (Hoolpoomne for elder- 

258 



3niJcx 



berrj' tree) : 68, 72. See also 
Elderberry tree. 

Languages: differentiation 24-27; 
origin 63-64. 

Lap'-pah (Wipa for elderberiy 
tree) : 136. See also Elderberry 
tree. 

Lathrodectus mactens, the poison 
spider: 214, 240. 

Le'-che-che (Northern Mewuk for 
Hummingbird) : 23, 27, 48, 53. 
See also Hummingbird. 

Le'-che-koo'-tah-mah (Northern 
Mewuk for a small bird with 
long bill) : 48, 53. 

Le'-wah-ke'-lak ( Hookooeko for 
Water People) : 228. 

Libocedrus decurrens. Incense ce- 
dar: 241. 

Light and heat giving substance, 
indifferently called fire, sun, or 
morning: 18, 35, 45-46. See al- 
so Fire. 

Lightning; 198, 199. See also 
Tah'-kip. 

Lion, Mountain. See Cougar and 
He-le'-jah. 

Little Folk, pigmies: 228. See al- 
so Se'-kah. 

Lizard: spirit of dead person may 
turn into 219; talks back, mak- 
ing echo 224; species and scien- 
tific names 239. See also Pe- 
ta'-le and Pe-tan'-yah. 

Lizard-man: why he failed to re- 
store dead people to life 55; 
helped make the world 59; quar- 
reled with Coyote-man 59, 61 ; 
gave man five fingers 55, 59, 
61, 115; sent fire to overcome 
people 19, 182. See also O- 
wah'-to, Pe-ta'-!e, Pe-ta'-lit-te, 



Pe-tan'-yah, Pit-chak, and Suk'- 

ka-de. 
Lol'-luk (Southern Mewuk for 

Woodrat) : 162, 186, 187. 
Loo'-lah, flute of elderberry wood: 

49, 61. 
Loo'-loo-e, the flute player (Mid- 
dle Mewuk for White-footed 

Mouse) : 60, 61-63. ^^^ "l^" 

White-footed Mouse. 
Loo-peek'-pow'-we (a mountain 

on Wen'-nok Lake) : 139, 140, 

I43- 
Loo'-poo (Tuleyome for small 

stone) : 140. 
Loo'-poo-oi'-yes, the Rock Giant of 

Tamalpais: 232-235. See also 

Rock Giant. 
Loo'-te-nek'-kah (Olayome for 

Echo) : 224. 
Lnphortyx californiciis. Valley or 

California Quail: 239. 
Low'-ke (Tuleyome for sling) : 

140. 
Lower Lake, Clear Lake: 139, 144. 
Lo'-wut (Wipa for Gray Goose) : 

wife of Wek'-wek 126-132; fun- 
eral 128 (picture 129). 
Luck charms: 211. See also Wep'- 

pah. 
Lynx fasciaius fallescens, Bobcat: 

237. See also To-lo'-mah. 

Madrone tree: 159, 241. 

Magic of Coyote-man and other 
divinities: 18, 21, 146. 

Magician or Witch Doctor: 35, 
128, 146, 179, 188. 

Mallard Duck: 162, 179-189; sci- 
entific name 239. See also Yow'- 
hah. 

Manzanlta, made from feathers: 



Wi)t 3iatDn of tfje Wiovlh 



i59> '67; people made from 159; 
scientific name 241. 

Map showing distribution of Me- 
wan tribes: 25. 

Mariposa Mewuk: 34, 35, 92, 116, 
211, 213, 218. 

Ma'-wa (Northern Mewuk for 
Gray Squirrel): 222. 

Meadowlark: hunted by Wek'-wek 
138, 139; understands Indian 
languages 113; says disagree- 
able things 213, 219; if egg 
broken, rain falls 212-213; 
ghosts of bad Indians turn into 
219; scientific name 239. See 
also Hoo-yu'-mah and Yu-koo'- 
le. 

Meadowlark-man: 54-56, 58, 59; 
prevented immortality 19, 55- 
56, 132, 212; prevented Lizard- 
man from turning into the Moon 
59; prevented Lizard from 
bringing dead back to life 55; 
prevented Wek'-wek from bring- 
ing deed wife to life 131-132. 
See also Hool, Yu'-ka-loo, and 
Yu-koo'-le. 

Me'-cham yem'-me-um, ashes and 
burnt bones of dead: 227. 

Mel'-le-a-loo'-mah hilts (Tuley- 
ome) : 139. 

Mel'-ling-i'-yah (Northern Me- 
wuk for Yellowjacket Wasp) : 
222. 

Mephitis occidentalis, Skunk; 238. 
See also His'-sik. 

Merced Falls: 169. 

Merced River: 162, 169, 229. 

Mermaids or Water-women: 20, 
66, 81, 228-230. See also Ho- 
ha'-pe, Ho-sa'-pah, and Hoo- 
soo'-pe. 



Mewan Mythology: fundamental 
elements 18-20; minor beliefs 
20-21 ; local or tribal myths 21- 
22; ancient myths 31-205; pres- 
ent day myths 207. 

Mewan tribes: distribution 24; 
map 25; language 24. 

Mew'-ko, Indian people (in lan- 
guage of the Valley tribes) : 
how made 73, 83-87. 

Me'-wuk, Chowchilla: 34, 44, 45, 
217, 232. 

Me'-wuk, Indian People: how 
made 55, loi, 115. See also 
People. 

Me'-wuk tribes: territory 24, 31; 
map 25. 

Me'-wuk, Mariposa: 34, 35, 92, 

211, 213, 218. 

Me'-wuk, Merced River: 229. 

Me'-wuk, Middle: eastern bound- 
ary 94; creation story 60-64; 
story of Bear and Fawns iio- 
112; beliefs about animals 210, 

212, 213 ; beliefs about ghosts 
218; origin of noise 224. 

Me'-wuk, Northern: consider Coy- 
ote-man selfish 18 ; awe of feath- 
ers 20. Mytlis: how Robin got 
his red breast 32-33; how Tol'- 
le-loo got the fire 48-53; why 
Lizard-man did not restore 
the dead to life 54-56; Coyote- 
man and Lizard-man 58-59; 
how Ravens became people loi ; 
the Bear and the Fawns 102- 
109 ; beliefs about Bears 209 ; 
how the children of He-le'-jah 
became people 115; Nek'-na-ka'- 
tah the Rock-maiden 123 ; beliefs 
about animals 209-210, 214; be- 
liefs about ghosts 219, 220; the 



260 



Snbex 



sign of death 221-222; beliefs 
about natural phenomena 223- 
225 (thunder and rainbow 223, 
noise and echo 224) ; how the 
world grew 225 ; Rock Giants 
231-232. 

Me'wuk, Southern: how Ah-ha'- 
le stole the sun 34-46 ; how he 
stole the morning 44-46 ; how 
the Raven became a hunter 92- 
99; greed of His'-sik the Skunk 
ii6-i2o; Hoi-ah'-ko tales 162- 
197; man-eating Giants 162- 
172; the Thunder 173-178; 
Wek'-wek's search for his father 
179-190; for his sister 191-193; 
Wek'-wek's visit to the Under- 
world 195-197; beliefs about 
animals 211, 213; beliefs about 
ghosts 217-218; value of a hole 
in the nose 218; Mermaids 229- 
230; Rock Giants 232. 

Me'-wuk, Stanislaus River: 213. 

Me'-wuk, Tuolumne River: 210, 
212, 218, 224. 

Middletown, Lake County-: 138. 

Mi'-doo: creation myth 55-56; be- 
liefs concerning Meadowlark 
212; beliefs concerning ghosts 
or spirits 219. 

Milkweed plant: 131. 

Mi'-5Tjm, the Woman Chief 
(Hoolpoomne) : 87. 

Mo-kal'-um-ne tribe: beliefs con- 
cerning ghosts 220-221. 

Mokelumne River: 32, 48, 54, 102, 
122. 

Mol'-luk (Hoolpoomne and Me- 
wuk for Condor): 18, 48, 49; 
not very wise 71 ; blanket of his 
feathers 62; Hoolpoomne story 
66-86 ; his wife a rock 67 ; look- 

261 



ing off over the world from 
Mount Diablo (picture) 69. See 
also Condor. 

Money Clam: 215, 240. 

Money, shell: 145, 147, 185, 187. 
See also Hoo'-yah and Pis'-pe. 

Mon'-o-go, the incense cedar: 53. 

Mo'-nok, people to east: 64. 

Moo'-le, the blue oak tree: 140. 

Moon, in Northern Mewuk myth: 
59- 

Moon-man, a Nissenan divinity: 
58, 59. See also Pom'-bok. 

Morning: Keeper 44, 45; stolen by 
Coyote-man 45-46. 

Morning Star: 70. 

Mortar holes in rocks: 125 (pic- 
ture 123). 

Mortar, stone: 22. 

Mother Deer: 102-111, 198-199. 

Mount Diablo: 50, 67, 68-73, 83. 
See also Oo'-yum-bel'-le. 

Mount Konokti: 145. See also 
Oo-de'-pow-we. 

Mountain Lion or Cougar. See 
He-le'-jah. 

Mountain People: 48-53. 

Mountain Tanager: meaning of 
red head 21. 

Mouse, White-footed: 48-53, 60- 
63 ; scientific name 238. See al- 
so Loo'-loo-e and Tol'-le-loo. 

Murphys, Calaveras County: 231. 

Music tree. Elderberry: 20, 70-73. 

Myths: recital in the roundhouse 
13 (illustration, frontispiece) ; 
characteristics 17 ; fundamental 
elements 18-20; minor 20-21; lo- 
cal or tribal 21-22; ancient 31- 
205; present day 207-236; about 
animals 209-215; about ghosts 
217-221; about natural phenom- 



Cfjc Baton of tlje WBovVb 



ena 223-225; about witches and 
pigmies 227-228 ; about Roci 
Giants 231-236; about Mermaids 
229-230. 

Nek'-na-ka'-tah (Northern Me- 
wuk for Rock Maiden) : 122, 125. 

Neotoma fuscipes streatori, Wood- 
rat: 238. See also Lol'-luk. 

Nicasio, place in Marin County: 
198, 202, 204, 217, 223, 224, 227, 
228, 232. 

Nis'-se-nan': people 56; tribe 58, 
59 ; creation myth 59 ; belief con- 
cerning Mermaids 229-230. 

Noise, origin: 224. 

No-put' -kul-lol (Southern Mewuk 
for Screech Owl) : 162, 186, 187. 

North Giant: 19, 66, 75-81. See 
also Ke'-Iok. 

North Hole in Sky, a place of ex- 
treme cold: 19, 165, 178, 214. 

Northern Mewuk. See Mewul:, 
Northern. 

Nose: perforated for the kun-no'- 
wah saves turning into a fish 
219. 

No-to'-koi-yo or NE Midoo: 219. 

No'-yoop Island: 126. 

Nuk'-kah the Rain or Thunder 
Shower: 18, 23, 60, 63. See al- 
so Rain. 

Nuthatch: 162, 188; scientific name 
239. See also Pel-pel'-nah. 

Oak tree, Black: 167, 241. 
Oak tree, Blue: 140, 167, 241. 
Oak tree. Valley or Water: 241. 
Oak trees: planted by BUiejays: 

213. 
Oats, wild, made from feathers: 

167. 



Odocoileus columbianus, Blacktail 
Deer: 237. 

O-hoo'-pe, the brush blind for 
shooting birds: 173. 

O-hul'-le (Wipa for Badger) : 
wife of O-la'-nah 134-136. 

O-hum'-mah-te (Southern Mewuk 
for Grizzly Bear) : 162, 192. See 
also Bear, Grizzly. 

0-la'-choo,the Coyote-man (North- 
ern Mewuk) : 27, 48, 58-59, 219; 
tries to find fire but fails 49 ; 
tries to swallow the fire 53 ; he 
and Lizard-man made the world 
59. See also Coyote-man. 

O-la-ment'-ko tribe: survivors 24. 
Myths: how Tule-Wren shot out 
the sun 152-154; how Wek'-wek 
was saved from flood 157; why 
weak and cannot stand cold 158- 
160; where the big clam came 
from 215; belief about echo 225. 

O-Ia'-nah (Wipa for Coyote-man) : 
27, 126, 128 ; defeated by Wek'- 
wek 134-136; turns into real 
Coyote 136. See also Coyote- 
man. 

O'-la-yo'-me tribe: ancestral home 
138; meadowlark belief 212; 
bats called Wal'-le 217; earth- 
quake belief 223-224; echo be- 
lief 224; Rock Giant 236. See 
also Tu'-le-yo'-me. 

O'-leh (Southern Nissenan for 
Coyote-man) : 59. See also 
Coyote-man. 

O-lel'-le, the mysterious bird of 
Cold Springs: 211. 

O-let'-te (Hoolpoomne for Coyote- 
man) : 27, 66, 71-90; magical 
change from stump 71 ; plays 
hand game with Ke'-lok 79-81; 

262 



SnliEX 



changes to hunting animal 87. 
See also Coyote-man, 
Ol'-law-win, the San Joaquin 
plain: 48, 64. 

Ol'-Ie (Tuleyome for Coyote- 
man) : 27; in story of creation 
138-151; made people from 
feathers 148-149; at his round- 
house (picture) 141. See also 
Coyote-man. 

Ol'-lus muk-ki'-e (Southern Me- 
wuk for Toad-woman) : 162, 
164, i66, 181. 

O'-loo-kuk or Ol'-Io-kuk, people 
to west: 64. 

Oo'-choom (Southern Mewuk for 
Fly) : 162, 170, 181. 

Oo-de'-pow-we (Tuleyome for 
Mount Konokti) : 145-146. 

Oo'-le, the Rock Giant of Chow- 
chilla foothills: 232. See also 
Rock Giant. 

Oo'-leus, the heart spirit; 218. 

Oo'-loop (Teleyome for flame): 

143- 

Oon'-nah-pi's (Hookooeko for So- 
noma Peak) : 203, 204. 

Oo'-noo (buckeye tree) in which 
fire is preserved for the people: 
19; fire brought by Robin 33; 
by people 53; by mouse 63; by 
hummingbird 90; by shrew- 
mice 151. See also Buckeye 
tree. 

Oo'-pah (Hookooeko for Rain): 
199. 

Oos: spirit or ghost 219 

Oo-soo'-ma-te (Northern and Mid- 
dle Mewuk for Grizzly Bear 
and Grizzly Bear woman) : 23, 
238; helped make people 54-55; 
helped make mortars and pestles 



122, 125; in story of the Bear 
and the Fawns 102-112; kills 
the Mother Deer 103, iii; wife 
of He-le'-jah 115; resembles 
people 209; fondness for danc- 
ing 209. See also Bear, Griz- 
zly. 

Oo-ta'-yo'-me, the Village of the 
Dead: 217. 

Oo-te!-tal-lah pow'-we, a mountain 
southwest of Wennok Lake: 
236. 

Oo'-ten nas'-se-sa (Northern Me- 
wuk for ancient myths) : 31, 53. 

Oo'-ten-ne or Oot'-ne, the ancient 
Mewuk myths: 31. 

Oo'-tin (Bower Cave) : 31, 93, 94, 
99- 

Oo-wel'-Iin (Southern Mewuk for 
North Giant) : 162, 169-171; vul- 
nerable under heel 170; killed 
170; burned 171. See also Giant, 
Man-eating, and North. 

Oo'-yum-bel'-le, Mount Diablo: 
50, 67, 68-71, 73, 83. 

Oplah (Southern Mewuk for 
Merced Falls) : 169. 

Ornament, nose: 219. See also 
Kun-no-wah. 

Orphan boys: hunting birds for 
food 173 (picture 175). 

Os-sa'-le (Middle Mewuk for Coy- 
ote-man) : 27, 60, 61 ; name 
changed to Kat'-wah (greedy) 
63. See also Coyote-man. 

Os-so-so'-li (Pleiades) : 66, 68. See 
also Star Women. 

Otiis as'to bendirei, Screech Owl: 
239. 

O-wah'-to (Southern Mewuk for 
Big-headed Fire Lizard) : 19, 
162; sends fire to overcome 



263 



Wl}t ©aton of t^e 'Wiovlh 



Wek'-wek and others 181-182; 
killed by Wek'-wek 189; scien- 
tific name 239. 

Owl, Bam: 217, 219, 238. See 
also Et-ta'-le, and Ha-chah'-we. 

Owl, Great Horned: is or may con- 
tain ghosts of the dead 212, 218, 
219; bony eye ring 212; scientific 
name 239. See also Soo-koo'-me, 
and Too-koo'-le. 

Owl, Screech: 162, 186, 187; scien- 
tific name 239. See also No- 
put'-kul-lol. 

O-woo'-yah (Northern Mewuk for 
Mother Deer) : 102-109, 209. See 
also Mother Deer. 

Ow'-wal, Mermaid pool in Pleas- 
ant Valley: 229. 

O'-ye (Olamentko and Hookooeko 
for Coyote-man) : 27, 66, 90, 152- 
154; made the flood 156-157; 
made people of sticks 159; came 
across ocean from west 203 ; 
meets grandson Wek'-wek 204 ; 
makes people out of feathers 204- 
205 ; his bow, the Rainbow, 223. 
See also Coyote-man. 

Paht'-ki-you (Northern Me%vuk 
for Raccoon- woman) : 114, 115. 
See also Raccoon-woman. 

Pa'-we-nan' tribe: location 55. 
Myths: concerning resurrection 
55-56; concerning Meadowlark 
212; where spirit goes after 
death 219. 

Pe'-Ieet (Olamentko for Grebe) ; 
156-157. See also Grebe. 

Pel-pel'-nah (Southern Mewuk for 
Nuthatch) : 162, 188. 

People (real or Indian): trans- 
formed Ravens loi ; transform- 



ed feathers 84-87, 146-149, 167, 
204-205; transformed sticks 159; 

transformed clay 19 ; children of 
Cougar-man 115; made by 
Grizzly Bear and First People 
55; made by Coyote-man and 

Lizard-man 59, 61 ; made by 

Wek'-wek and Ho'-pah 127. 
Perod'ifus streaiori, Kangaroo Rat: 

238. 
Peromyscus gamheli, White-footed 

Mouse: 238. 
Pestles, stone: 125. 
Pe-ta'-le (Northern and Middle 

Mewuk for Lizard) : he and 

Coyote-man make people 18; 

gives newly created man five 

fingers 20, 60-61, 114-115; helps 

Coyote-man make the world 59 ; 

makes the echo 224. See also 

Lizard. 
Pe-ta'-lit-te (Northern Mewuk for 

Little Lizard-man) : 54, 55. See 

also Lizard-man. 
Pe-tan'-}'ah (Hookooeko for Blue- 
sided Lizard) : makes the echo 

224. 
Phragmiies vulgaris, Wild Cane or 

Reed: 188, 241. 
Pigmies, belief concerning: 228. 
Pine, Digger or Foothills: 241. 
Pine, Sugar: 167, 241. 
Pine, Yellow: 167, 241. 
Pinus lambertiana. Sugar Pine: 

241. 
Pinus ponderosa. Yellow Pine : 241. 
Pinus sabiniana. Digger Pine: 

241. 
Pis'-pe (Olamentko for shell 

money) : 185, 187. 
Pit-chak (Southern Nissenan for 

Lizard-man) : 59. 

264 



Snijex 



Piute of Mono Lake: 94. 
Planesticus migratorius propinquus 

(Robin) : 32, 239. 
Platinus racemosa. Sycamore: 241. 
Pleasant Valley on Merced River: 

Mermaid Pool 229. 
Pleiades (Os-so-so'-li) : 66, 70. 
Pocket Gopher: 211. 
Podilymbus podiceps, Small Grebe: 

138, 148, 239. See also Hoo- 

poos'-min. 
Poison spider, used by Indians: 

Z14, 240. 
Po'-ko-moo (Northern Mewuk for 

Poison Spider) : 214. 
Pem'-bok (Southern Nissenan for 

Moon-man) : 59. 
Poo'-ki-yu (Northern Mewuk for 

Whirlwind) : ghost in 220. 
Poo-soo'-ne, home of Pa'-we-nan' 

tribe: 54. 
Pope Valley: 24. 

Po'-to-po'-to (Olamentko for sage- 
herb): 159. 
Preexistent divinities: 18. 
Present Day myths: 207-236. 
Procyon psora. Raccoon: 238. See 

also Paht'-ki-yu. 
Putah Creek: 24, 138, 217, 223, 236. 
Putorius xanthogenys, Weasel: 238. 

See also Sah'-te. 

Quail, Valley or California: 217, 
239. See also Hek-ek'-ke. 

Quercus callfornica. Black Oak: 
241. 

Quercus douglasi. Blue Oak: 241. 

Quercus lobata, Valley or Water 
Oak: 241. 

Raccoon-woman: wife of Cougar- 
man 19, 114, 115; offspring be- 



come people 19, 115; scientific 
name 238. See also Paht'-ki- 
yu. 
Rain: 18, 23, 63, 199; made by 
Coyote-man 145 ; made by the 
Thunder Birds 177-178. See al- 
so Nuk'-kah and Oo'-pah. 
Rainbow: 223. See also Kah'- 

chah and Ku-yet'-tah. 
Rana draytoni. Frog: 239. See al- 
so Ko-to'-lah. 
Rat, Kangaroo: 23, 162, 163. See 

also Tu'-pe. 
Rattlesnake: bites Yawm's daugh- 
ter 56; guards elderberry 68, 
72; scientific name 240. See al- 
so Koi'-maw. 
Raven: caught by Coyote-man 83- 
84; a great hunter 20, 92-99; 
kills the first deer 94-95 ; how 
he made himself black 93; sci- 
entific name 239. See also Kah'- 
kool, Kah'-kah-loo, and Kok'- 
kol. 
Ravens: became people loo-ioi. 

See also Kah'-kah-loo. 
Red parts of birds indicate con- 
tact with fire: 21, 33, 49, 50, 
89-90, 154. 
Red-shafted Flicker: 21, 48, 49, 
1IO-II2, 239. See also Flicker, 
Red-shafted. 
Reed or Wild Cane: 24.1. 
Rising of dead on third or fourth 
day: 19, 132, 196, 218; rising 
prevented by Meadowlark-man 
19. 55. '32, 212. 
Robin: meaning of red on breast 
21, 33, 50; stole the fire 33; 
keeper of the fire 48, 49, 52; 
scientific name 32, 239. See al- 
so Wit'-tab-bah. 



265 



tEfjc Baiun of tlje Wiovlh 



Rock, wife of Mol'-luk and moth- 
er of Wek'-wek: 67-68. 

Rock Giant of Calaveras County: 
231-236. See also Che'-ha-lum'- 
che. 

Rock Giant of Chowchilla foot- 
hills: 232. See also Oo'-le. 

Rock Giant of Tamalpais: 232-235. 
See also Loo'-poo-oi'-yes. 

Rock Giant of Wennok Valley: 
236. See also Ka'-lum-me. 

Rock Giants: dwell in caves 19, 
231-236. See also Che'-ha-lura'- 
che, Ka'-lura-me, Loo'-poo-oi'- 
yes, Oo'-le, and Oo-wel'-lin. 

Rock Maiden: 122, 125. See also 
Nek'-na-ka'-ta. 

Roundhouse: 13, 22, 217; of Wek'- 
wek and We-pi-ah'-gah 49 ; of 
the Valley People (near Stock- 
ton) 48, 49, 62; of the Moun- 
tain People 63 ; of Wek'-wek 
131, 132; of Ol'-Ie and Wek'- 
wek 142, 146, 147 ; of Sah'-te 
143; of the Grebes 148, 157; of 
the Water People 228 ; of the 
dead 218. See also Han-na'-boo 
and Lah'-mah. 

Sacramento River; 54, 55, 66. 

Sage-herb: 136, 159, 241. See al- 
so Kutch'-um and Po'-to-po'-to. 

Sah-kah'-te (Olamentko for 

Echo) : 225. See also Echo. 

Sahk'-mum-chah (Northern Me- 
wuk for Cinnamon Bear) : 48, 
49, 237. See also Bear, Cinna- 
mon. 

Sah'-te (Tuleyome for Weasel- 
man) : 19, 138, 140-145; set 
world on fire 21, 144; money 
stolen by Wek'-wek 143. 



Sah'-win-ne (Middle Mewuk for 

Hail) : 18, 23, 60, 63 
Sak-ki-ak, a plant which turned 

into a rattlesnake: 56. 
Sambucus glauca, Elderberry: 241. 

See also Elderberry. 
Sandhill Crane: loud voice 23; 
chief of Valley People 34, 35- 
43 ; mother of Lo'-wut 126, 128 ; 
chief of the Underworld People 
162, 195-196; scientific name 
239. See also To-to'-kol, To- 
to'-kon, and To-to'-ka-no. 
San Francisco Bay: 27, 67, 205. 
San Joaquin Valley or Plain: 34, 

48, 67, 223. 
San Rafael, town in Marin Coun- 
ty: 202, 204, 205, 227, 228, 232. 
Sapsucker, Red-headed: 162, 188; 
scientific name 239. See also 
Choo-ta-tok'-kwe-lah. 
Saxidomus giganteus, big money 

clam: 215, 240. 
Saxidomus nuttalli, common money 

clam: 240. 
Sceloporus biseriahis, Black Liz- 
ard: 239. 
Sceloporus graciostis, Little Liz- 
ard: 239. 
Sceloporus occidentalis, Blue-Liz- 
ard: 224, 239. See also Pe-ta'-le. 
Scientific names: mammals 237; 
birds 238; reptiles 239; insects 
and mollusks 240; trees and 
plants 241. 
Sciurus fossor, Gray Tree Squir- 
rel : 237. See also Ma'-wa. 
Screech Owl (a fireman) : 162, 186, 
187; scientific name 239. See 
also No-put'-kul-lol. 
Se'-kah (Hookooeko for forest Lit- 
tle Folk) : 228. 



266 



Hlnbex 



Se-saw'-che, place near Coulter- 
ville: 169. 

Se-soo'-te'-al-le (Washoo for 
Meadowlark) : 213. 

Shell money: 72, 145, 147, 185, 187, 
215, 240. See also Haw'-wut, 
Hoo'-yah, and Pis'-pe. 

Shoveler Duck. See Spoonbill. 

Shower. See Rain. 

Shrews (or Shrew Mice, Sorex) : 
stole fire 21, 138, 149-151; scien- 
tific name 238. See also We'- 
ke-wil'-lah. 

Singing came from running water: 
224. 

Sitta carolinensis aculeata. Nut- 
hatch: 239. See also Pel-pel'- 
nah. 

Si-yu-ka-i (Hookooeko for Echo): 
224. See also Echo. 

Skunk: 21, 1 16-120, 238. See also 
His'-sik. 

Sky: a dome-shaped canopy 19; 
holes, continually opening and 
closing 19, 42-43, 183-184, 189, 
214; people on top 19, 163-166, 
178. 

Sling: use in hunting 22, 140. See 
also Low'-ke. 

Snake: spirit or ghost may turn 
into 219. See also Rattlesnake. 

So'-koi (Southern Mewuk for 
Elk) : 116, 117. See also Elk. 

Sonoma Peak (Oon'-nah-pi's) : 
203, 204. 

Sonora, town in Tuolumne Coun- 
ty: 192. 

Soo'-choo-koo (Wipa for Spoon- 
bill Duck) : pall bearer for Lo'- 
wut 126, 128 ; scientific name 
239. 

Soo-koo'-me (Middle Mewuk for 

267 



Great Horned Owl) : hoots when 
people die 212; consists of or 
carries ghosts 212, 218, 219. See 
also Owl, Great Horned. 

Soo-la-too (Hoolpoomne for poor) : 
87. 

Soo-lek'-ko (Northern Mewuk for 
Ghosts) : 219, 220. See also 
Ghosts. 

Soo-les'-ko (Middle Mewuk for 
Ghosts) : 218. See also Ghosts. 

Soo'-pe, digging stick: 73. 

Soo-wah-tah (Middle Mewuk for 
Pocket Gopher) : 210-211. 

Sorex, Shrew brothers: 138, 149- 
151, 238. 

Southern Mewuk. See Map, p. 25. 
See also Mewuk, Southern. 

Spatula clypeata, Shoveler Duck: 
239. 

Sphyrap'icus ruber, Sapsucker (a 
kind of Woodpecker) : 239. 

Spider, Poison: 214, 240. See al- 
so Po'-ko-moo. 

Spirit: guardian (Totem), warn- 
ing of death 222; wind 218; 
heart 218, 219; goes northwest 
to ocean 217; goes to Village of 
Dead 217; may return 218, 219. 
See also Hinnan Soos and 
Ghosts. 

Spoonbill Duck: 126, 128; scienti- 
fic name 239. 

Squirrel, Gray: 222, 237. See al- 
so Ma'-wa. 

Stanislaus River: 231. 

Star-people: 66, 70. 

Star-women: 66, 70, 72-73, 89. See 
also Hul'-luk mi-yura'-ko and 
Os-so-so'-li. 

Stockton: near site of ancient 
roundhouse 48. 



Zf)t Baton of tfje ISiorlb 



Stump: becomes Coyote-man 71; 

befriends lost dog 2io; ghosts 

hide in 220. See also Too'-cha- 

mo. 
Sturnella neglecta, Meadowlark: 

239. 
Suisun Bay: 24, 126. 
Suk'-ka-de (Northern Mewuk for 

Black Lizard-man) : 54, 55, 239. 

See also Lizard-man. 
Sulphurbank Bay, Clear Lake: 

143- 

Sun (or fire), a primordial heat 
and light giving substance: 18; 
fire transformed into Sun 33, 
35, 53; stolen by Ah-ha'-le, Coy- 
ote-man 34; shot out by Cha'- 
ka 21, 153. See also Fire and 
Wut'-too. 

Sun-woman: brilliancy due to coat 
of abalone shells iS, 2i, 201. 
See also He'-koo-las. 

Supernatural powers of Coyote- 
man and other divinities 18. 

Sycamore tree: 241. 



Tah'-kip (Hookooeko for Light- 
ning) : 198, 199. 

Tah-lah'-wit (Hoolpoomne for 
North) : 75, 79. 

Tah'-low (Hookooeko for Thun- 
der) : 198, 199. 

Tah'-mah, North: 64. 

Tah'-mah-la'-ko, people to north: 
64. 

Ta-la-sa'-na, place in Tuolumne 
foothills: 60. 

Tam'-moo-lek, people to north: 64. 

Tap-pitch'-koo-doot (Southern Me- 
wuk for Kingbird) : 184. 

Tax'tdea taxus neglecta^ Badger: 
237. See also Too'-wik. 



Teeth, a child's, given to Pocket 

Gopher: 210. 
Tetmatodyles palustris, Tule 
Wren: 239. See also Cha'-ka. 

Te-wi'-yu (Northern and Middle 
Mewuk for Red-shafted Flick- 
er) : 48, 49, 110-113, 239. See 
also Flicker, Red-shafted. 

Theft of fire: 19; by Robin 33; 
by Coyote-man 42, 46; by 
White-footed Mouse 52-53, 62- 
63; by Hummingbird 89; by 
the Shrew brothers 150. 

Thomomys, Gopher: 237. 

Thunder: 162, 173-178, 199, 223. 
See also Kah'-loo, Nuk'-kah, 
Tah'-low, Tim'-mel-le and 
Tim-rae-Ia'-Ie. 

Thunder Birds, brothers: 177-178. 

Thunder Mountain, near north 
hole in sky, a place of extreme 
cold: 19, 165, 214. 

Ti'-e-te (Northern Mewuk for 
California or Valley Blue] ay) : 
223, 238. 

Timber Wolf, Canis: 210, 238. 

Tim-me-la'-le (Southern Mewuk 
for Thunder) : 162, 173-178. See 
also Thunder. 

Tim'-mel-le (Northern Mewuk 
for Thunder) : 223. See also 
Thunder. 

Toad-woman: 162, 164, 166, i8i, 
240. See also Ol'-lus muk-ki'-e. 

To'-kah, wing bone of Turkey 
Buzzard used in witchci-aft: 
227-228. 

Tol'-le-loo (Northern Mewuk for 
White-footed Mouse) : steals fire 
from Valley People 50; puts 
Valley People to sleep with his 
flute 20, 50 (picture 51) ; gets 

268 



3nlJcx 



fire for Mountain People 48-53 ; 
scientific name 238. See also 
Loo'-loo-e and Wliite-footed 
Mouse. 

To-lo'-mah (Southern Mewuk for 
Bobcat) : 92, 93. 

Toraales Bay, Marin County 
(home of Tam-mal'-ko, part of 
Hoo'-koo-e'-lfo tribe) : 18, 20, 66, 
198, 200; home of survivors 24; 
story told at 204 ; belief as to 
Ducks and Geese 214; source of 
big money clam 215; belief as 
to Ghosts 217; belief as to Rain- 
bow 225 ; as to Echo 224 ; as to 
Witches 227 ; as to Pigmies and 
Water People 228. 

Too'-cha-mo, the stump: 210. See 
also Stump. 

Too-koo'-le (Northern Mewuk for 
Great Horned Owl) : 219. See 
also Owl, Great Homed. 

Too'-koom, the tree buckskin (a 
fungus) : 149-150, 151. 

Too'-le, a chief of the First Peo- 
ple who became the Evening 
Star: 92-99; why he failed to 
kill Deer 98. 

Too-le'-ze (Northern Mewuk for 
Timber-wolf) : how he hunts 
deer 210. 

Too'-pe, Kangaroo Rat: 23, 162, 
163, 238. 

Too'-wik (Southern Mewuk for 
the Badger) : 21, 23, 116, 119, 
237. See also Badger-wo- 
man. 

Totem or guardian spirit: 222. 

To-to'-ka-no (Southern Mewuk 
for Sandhill Crane) : loud voice 
33 ; chief of Valley People 34- 
43 ; refused to accept the Sun 

269 



42; scientific name 239. See 
also Sandhill Crane. 

To-to'-kol (Wipa for Sandhill 
Crane) : mother of Lo-wut 126- 
128. See also Sandhill Crane. 

To-to'-kon (Southern Mewuk for 
Sandhill Crane) : 162, 195-196, 
239. See also Sandhill Crane. 

Transformation: of First People 
into animals or objects 17, 18, 
43, 87, 132, 171; of feathers, 
sticks, or clay into people 19-20, 
86-87, 148-149, 167, 204-205. 

Transmigration: 219. 

Tule: 140, 144, 183. See also Kol. 

Tule-wren: shot out the sun 21, 
152-154; scientific name 239. See 
also Cha'-ka. 

Tu'-le-yo'-me poo-koot, ancient 
home of tribe: 138, 139. 

Tu'-le-yo'-me tribe: 20, 21, 24; 
how Sah'-te set the world on 
fire 138-151. See also O'-la'- 
yo'-me. 

Tuolumne Mewuk: no, 210, 212, 
218, 224. 

Tuolumne River: 38, 60, no, 210, 

212, 2l8. 

Tu'-pe (Southern Mewuk for 
Kangaroo Rat-woman) : 23, 162, 
163, 238. See also Kangaroo 
Rat. 

Turkey Buzzard: 48, 49, 84; a 
wicked chief 162, 184-187; wing 
bone used in witchcraft 227- 
228 ; scientific name 239. See 
also Choo'-hoo, Ho'-ho and 
Hoo'-a-zoo. 

Turtle: keeper of the sun or fire 
34, 39, 42 ; keeper of the morn- 
ing 44-46 ; sleeps with one eye 
open 39; falls asleep and loses 



^i)e Baton ot tf)t ?B2lorUj 



the sun 42 ; scientific name 240. 
See also Ah-wahn'-dali. 

Ul'-le (Mokalumne for Ghost) : 

221. See also Ghosts. 
Underworld People; 19, 162, 195- 

197. 
Vrocyon californicus. Gray Fox: 

238. See also Yu'-wel. 
Ursus americanus. Black Bear: 

237. 
Ursus horribil'is californicus, 

Grizzly Bear: 238. See also 

Oo-soo'-ma-te. 
Ut'-ta Wah-kah'-loo (Mokelumne 

River) : 48. 
Ut-too'-yah (Middle Mewuk for 

Mother Deer) : iio-iii. See 

also Deer, Mother. 

Valley People: 34, 53, 63; loca- 
tion of roundhouse 48 ; chiefs 
and members of tribe 49 ; Sun 
secured for 35-43; shrink from 
bright light 40, 41 (picture). 

Vespa, Yellowjacket Wasp: 240. 
See also Mel'-ling-i'-yah. 

Village of the Dead: 217. 

Vulnerable spot: heel of Oo-wel'- 
lin 170; throat of Ix>o'-poo-oi'- 
yes 235. 

Wah'-ah (Southern Mewuk for 
Heron) : 195. 

Wah-kah-lah'-loo (Tuolumne Me- 
wuk for shouting) : 224. 

Wah-kah'-loo, the river: 224. 

Wah-kal'-mut-tah (Southern Me- 
wuk for Merced River) : 169, 
228. 

Wah-tib'-sah (Northern Mewuk 
for Sign of Death) : 221-222. 



Wal'-la-su (Northern Mewuk for 
ocean) : 217. 

Wal'-le (Hookooeko for ghost) : 
217. 

Wal'-le (Olayome for Bat) : 217. 

Wal'-le, West Point, place in foot- 
hills near Mokelumne River: 
54, 114, 122. 

Wal'-le-kah'-pah hills, the Gate- 
way to the North: 214. 

Wal'-les-mah (Middle Mewuk for 
ocean) : 217. 

Washoo tribe: call the Meadow- 
lark a bad bird 213. 

Wasp, Yellow-jacket: 172, 222, 
240. See also Mel'-ling-i'-yah. 

Water People: 228. See also Le'- 
wah-ke'-lak. 

Water women or Mermaids: 20, 
66, 81, 229-230. See also Ho- 
ha'-pe, Ho-sa'-pah and Hoo- 
soo'-pe. 

Weasel-man: 19, 138, 140-146, 
238. See also Sah'-te. 

We-ho'-whe-mah (a water bird) : 
177. 

We'-ke-wil'-lah brothers, little 
Shrews: 21, 138, 149-151, 238. 

Wek'-wek, the Falcon-man, grand- 
son of Coyote-man: 18, 60, 66; 
chief of Valley People 48, 49 ; 
a Witch Doctor 128, 179 ; swift- 
ness 23 ; bom of a rock 21, 68 ; 
named from his crj' 27; changes 
to Falcon, a hunting bird 87; 
Hool-poom'-ne story 66-90 ; Tu'- 
le-yo'-me story 138-151; Wi'- 
pa story 134-136; with Ol'-le 
at his roundhouse (picture) 141; 
kills geese at Wennok Lake 140 
(picture 147) ; pitched Tol'-le- 
loo in the water 50; discovers 



270 



Snbex 



Star-women and musical elder- 
berry tree 68 ; encounters rat- 
tlesnakes 72; buys the elderbei- 
ry tree 72; discovers Ke'-lok the 
North Giant 75; plays hand- 
game with Ke'-lok and is killed 
75-79; joins sister (Mermaids) 
in ocean 81 ; picks feathers to 
help grandfather make people 
84; sends Hummingbird to steal 
the fire 89; jealousy 126-132; 
kills his wife 128 ; tries to bring 
wife back to life 131-132; kills 
Meadowlark-man 132; defeats 
Coyote-man 134-136; makes fire 
136; finds Sah'-te's roundhouse 
143 ; steals Sah'-te's shell money 
143 ; pursued by Sah'-te's fire 
144-145 ; escapes flood 145 ; vis- 
its Grebes' roundhouse 146; re- 
turns to grandfather 146; helps 
grandfather make people from 
feathers 84-87, 146-149 ; eives a 
feast 53; is killed 90; killed by 
Underworld People 196 ; restor- 
ed to life by Coyote-man 81, 90; 
defeated Coyote-man 135; saved 
from flood 157; secures his 
grandfather 71 ; searches for his 
father 162, 179-190; searches for 
his sister 162, 191-193; visits 
Underworld People 162, 195- 
197; proof against arrows 196; 
allows himself to be burnt 196 ; 
restored to life by his own magic 
196; pursued by fire 146-147, 
181-182; has 2 or 3 wives 179- 
180; sets out to find Yi'-yil his 
father 180; learns that his fath- 
er was burnt to death 185-186; 
defeats and bums the wicked 
people 186-187; gets the Witch 

271 



Doctors to restore his father to 
life i88; kills the fire-lizard 
189; floated as feather across 
ocean 203-204; sprang through 
hole in sky 183-184; wants peo- 
ple 83, 148, 204; restored to life 
81, 90, 196; scientific name 238. 

Wel-le'-to, Mermaid pool in Merc- 
ed River: 229. 

VVen'-nok pol'-pol (Tuleyome for 
Wennok Lake) : 139, 140, 146, 236. 

We-pi-ah'-gah (Northern and 
Middle Mewuk for Golden Ea- 
gle) : chief of Foothills People 
162-167; chief of Valley People 
48, 49, 53, 60, 62 ; gives a feast 
53 ; kills Tu'-pe his wife 163 ; 
carried above sky by Yel'-lo-kin 
164; kills Yel'-lo-kin 165; let 
down to earth on rope 167; sci- 
entific name 238. See also Gold- 
en Eagle. 

VVe'-pi-ak. See We-pi-ah'gah. 

Wep'-pah (Southern Mewuk for 
amulet) : 211. 

We'-wls-sool or We'-wu-sool 
(Southern Mewuk and Yokut 
for Golden Eagle) : chief of 
Valley People 44-46. See also 
Golden Eagle. 

Whirlwind: spirit of dead person 
219, 220. See also Poo'-ki-yu. 

White-footed Mouse (the flute 
player) : myths 48-53, 60-63 ; 
puts people to sleep with his 
flute 49-50, 53, 62; discovers the 
fire 61; stole the fire 50, 62; 
made big fire on ML Diablo 
50; chased by Wek'-wek 50; 
chased by Hail and Shower 63; 
scientific name 238. See also 
Loo'-loo-e and Tol'-le-loo. 



^i)t Jiatun of tfje Wiovlh 



White-headed Eagle: myths 126- 
128 ; has power to turn birds 
into people 127 ; in love with 
Wek'-wek's wife 127 ; scientific 
name 238. See also Ho'-pah. 

Wildcat or Bobcat: 92, 93, 237. 
See also To-lo'-mah. 

Wind: path taken by Ghosts 217. 
See also Hin'-nan Moo'-ka. 

Wi'-pa tribe 18. Myths: jealousy 
of Wek'-wek 126-132; death of 
Lo'-wut 126-132; defeat of Coy- 
ote-man 134-136; resurrection 
prevented by Meadowlark 212. 

Wishing, a means of accomplish- 
ing a purpose: 21, 39, 40. 

Witch Doctor: 35, 128, 166, 179, 
i88. See also Magician. 

Witches, how they kill people: 
227. 

Witchcraft (Hookooeko) : 227. 

Wit'-tab-bah (Northern Mewuk 
for Robin) : meaning of red on 
breast 21 ; how he got his red 
breast 32-33, 50; keeper of the 
fire 48, 49, 50; put to sleep by 
Tol'-le-loo 50; scientific name 

32, 239- 
Wolf, Timber: how he hunts deer 

210. See also Too-le'-ze. 
Woodrat: 162, 186, 187; scientific 

name 238. See also Lol'-luk. 
World: how it grew 225. 
Wren, Tule: 21, 152-154, 239. See 

also Cha'-ka. 
Wus'-ke (Hoolpumne for heart): 

76. 
Wut'-too (Southern Mewuk for 

Sun) : stolen by Ah-ha'-le 35- 

43 ; put through hole in sky and 

told to travel around earth 40- 

43. See also Sun. 



Yah'-tse, magic hair stick: 143- 

144. 
Yawm (Pawenan for Coyote- 
man) : 56. See also Coyote-man. 
Yel'-lo-kin (Southern Mewuk) a 
man-eating Bird-giant: 162- 
167; wing feathers turned into 
trees and people 166-167; heart 
turned into black rock 167. See 
Giants, Man-eating. 
Yellowjacket Wasp: 172, 222, 

240. 
Yi'-yil, Wek'-wek's father: 162, 
179-189; killed before Wek'- 
wek's birth 179 ; burned by 
Koo'-choo 185-186; restored to 
life 188. 
Yo'-kut tribes: 44. 
Yosemite Valley 93, 229. See also 

Ah-wah'-ne. 
Yo'-wan-hew'-wah (Olayome for 

Earthquake) : 223-224. 
Yow'-hah (Southern Mewuk for 
Mallard Duck), Wek'-wek's 
wife: 162, 179-189. 
Yuba River: 55. 

Yu'-kah-loo (Northern Mewuk for 
Meadow!ark-man) : 54, 58; pre- 
vented the dead from returning 
to life 55; prevented Pe-ta'-le 
from becoming the Moon 59; 
ghosts of bad Indians turn into 
219; scientific name 239. See 
also Meadowlark-man. 
Yu-koo'-le (Wipa for Meadow- 
lark): 126; prevented Wek'- 
wek's wife from returning to 
life 131-132. See also Meadow- 
lark-man. 
Yu'-ten me'-chah (Hookooeko for 

Evil One) : 228. 
Yu'-wel (Southern Mewuk for 

272 



SnbEx 



Gray Fox): 23, 92, 116; hunts 
Elk for His'-sik 117-118; ghosts 
of dead Indians turn into 219; 
scientific name 238. See also 



Gray Fox and Urocyon. 

Zenaidura macroura carolinen- 
sis, Dove: 238. 



273